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Videos about the Carolina Bays

The Glacier Ice Impact Hypothesis proposes that the Carolina Bays formed as the result of secondary impacts of glacier ice ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet approximately 12,800 BP. The elliptical geometry of the Carolina Bays with width-to-length ratios of 0.58 ± 0.05 indicates that they originated as conical cavities inclined at approximately 35 degrees and were subsequently remodeled by geologic processes into shallow bays.

The impacts by the saturation bombardment of ice boulders with energies of 13 kilotons to 3 megatons would have caused a mass extinction within a radius of 1500 km from the extraterrestrial impact site and the liquid water ejected above the atmosphere would have transformed into a fog of ice crystals in low Earth orbit that blocked the light of the sun, triggering a global cooling event.

This hypothesis was published in the Elsevier peer-reviewed journal Geomorphology.
A. Zamora, A model for the geomorphology of the Carolina Bays, Geomorphology (2017),
DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.01.019

Carolina Bays
Carolina Bays


Impact on a viscous surface
Impact on a viscous surface
Published on Jul 12, 2014 (0:06)
Impacts on viscous surfaces create conical cavities.

The Carolina Bays as evidence of a cosmic impact
The Carolina Bays as evidence of a cosmic impact.
Published on Jul 13, 2014 (44:00)
Experiments and ballistic equations are used to provide support for the hypothesis that the Carolina Bays could have originated from impacts of glacier ice ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide ice sheet during the Pleistocene.


Carolina Bay dirt
Carolina Bay dirt
Published on Jul 14, 2014 (1:48)
The soil in the Carolina Bays is similar to beach sand. This video documents a geological exploration near Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

Mechanism for the creation of the Carolina Bays
Mechanism for the creation of the Carolina Bays
Published on Jan 31, 2017 (4:55)
The Carolina Bays were created by secondary impacts of glacier ice ejected by a meteorite impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet about 12,800 years ago.
Zamora, A., A model for the geomorphology of the Carolina Bays, Geomorphology, Volume 282, 1 April 2017, Pages 209–216, DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2017.01.019

Carolina Bay conic sections
Carolina Bay conic sections
Published on Nov 14, 2017 (21:45)
The perfect elliptical geometry of the Carolina Bays is a clue about the mechanism by which the bays were formed. A trail of evidence leads to the discovery of a catastrophe that caused a mass extinction during the ice age.

Younger Dryas crater
Younger Dryas crater
Published on Feb 16, 2018 (12:24)
A meteorite impact 12,900 years ago caused the extinction of the North American megafauna and triggered the Younger Dryas cooling event. Several clues point to the location of the impact crater.

Carolina Bay deformations and irregularities
Carolina Bay deformations and irregularities
Published on Mar 13, 2018 (18:48)
The Carolina Bays are predominantly elliptical, but their shapes can be changed by erosion or by the conditions of the terrain where they were emplaced.

Younger Dryas Impact Quantification
Younger Dryas Impact Quantification
Published on Mar 27, 2018 (24:16)
The Carolina Bays provide an opportunity to create a physics-based model of the Younger Dryas impact 12,900 years ago.

Younger Dryas Extinction
Younger Dryas Extinction
Published on Apr 9, 2018 (20:26)
A physics-based model makes it possible to provide a minute-by-minute account of the Younger Dryas extinction event 12,900 years ago.

Heart-shaped Carolina Bays
Heart-shaped Carolina Bays
Published on Jul 23, 2018 (4:01)
This heart-shaped Carolina Bay is about 30 miles southwest of Fayetteville, North Carolina. The shape is explained by tandem impacts.

Modeling Carolina Bays
Modeling Carolina Bays
Published on Aug 8, 2018 (8:20)
This video presents various physical models that have been proposed to explain the formation of the Carolina Bays.

Carolina Bays in the Midlothian gravels
Carolina Bays in the Midlothian gravels
Published on Aug 16, 2018 (7:55)
Description of the Carolina Bays in Midlothian, VA and the possible role of acoustic fluidization in their formation

Carolina Bays Saturation Bombardment
Carolina Bays Saturation Bombardment
Published on Aug 29, 2018 (5:53)
Detailed examinaton of Prof. Peter Schultz's impacts on ice and the distribution of ejecta.

Nebraska's Carolina Bays
Nebraska's Carolina Bays
Published on Aug 31, 2018 (6:08)
The Nebraska Rainwater Basins have the same geometrical characteristics as the Carolina Bays and probably were created by similar physical mechanisms. This video examines the geological characteristics of the Nebraska Rainwater Basins.

Carolina Bays - Terrestrial or Celestial?
Carolina Bays - Terrestrial or Celestial?
Published on Sep 2, 2018 (10:26)
An impact interpretation of Herndon Bay and the paradigm shift that will occur with the recognition that the Carolina Bays were created by secondary impacts of glacier ice.

Exploring the Carolina Bays with Graham Hancock
Exploring the Carolina Bays with Graham Hancock
Published on Sep 7, 2018 (5:31)
Graham Hancock explored the Carolina Bays as part of his research for his new book "America Before: The Evidence of Earth's Lost Civilization". Randall Carlson, George Howard, Michael Davias, and Santha Faiia came along in the expedition.

Younger Dryas Ejecta Curtain
Younger Dryas Ejecta Curtain
Published on Sep 11, 2018 (9:20)
This video examines the geological traces left on a variety of terrains by the secondary impacts of ice boulders ejected by an extraterrestrial impact on the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

Carolina Bays eolian/lacustrine hypothesis
Carolina Bays eolian/lacustrine hypothesis
Published on Sep 17, 2018 (11:30)
This video questions whether the eolian/lacustrine hypothesis for the formation of the Carolina Bays is a scientific hypothesis.

Ghost Carolina Bays
Ghost Carolina Bays
Published on Sep 20, 2018 (6:14)
The term "Ghost Bays" is used to refer to Carolina Bays that have been highly eroded by moving water and are almost undetectable.

Carolina Bays and Oriented Lakes
Carolina Bays and Oriented Lakes
Published on Sep 22, 2018 (7:33)
This video compares the Carolina Bays with modern oriented lakes. Kaczorowski's 1977 thesis does not provide a solid or reliable foundation for the hypothesis that the Carolina Bays are similar to oriented lakes.

Books about the Carolina Bays
Books about the Carolina Bays
Published on Sep 28, 2018 (9:45)
Studying geology and astronomy after retirement led to the publication of two books about the Carolina Bays.
Killer Comet: What the Carolina Bays tell us.
Solving the Mystery of the Carolina Bays.

Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis (YDIH) - Prospects for a physics-based model
Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis
Prospects for a physics-based model

Published on Oct 6, 2018 (7:57)
This video examines some of the objections that have been raised against the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis and whether it is possible to build a physics-based model with the data that has been collected thus far.

Topics about the Carolina Bays



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