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English Vocabulary with examples

Here is a list of the most common English words with examples of their use. This basic vocabulary of less than 2000 words provides a good starting point for communicating in English.

In 1930, linguist and philosopher Charles Ogden published a book called "Basic English: A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar" in which he used a vocabulary of 850 words. Jean-Paul Nerriere later introduced "Globish", a subset of English with a vocabulary of 1500 words that can serve as a Global English to conduct business transactions. The sentence structure of English is explained in the English Grammar section.

Regular verbs

The following abbreviations are used for parts of speech:
adjective adj., adverb adv., auxiliary verb aux., conjunction conj., noun n., preposition prep., pronoun pron., verb v. For irregular verbs, the infinitive, past tense, and past participle are given in parentheses, e.g., (BREAK, BROKE, BROKEN). The past participle verb form can generally be used as an adjective, e.g., THE BROKEN GLASS.

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A, AN - indefinite article
A cat. An apple.
ABLE adj. - having sufficient power to accomplish something
He will be able to finish by noon.
ABOUT adv. - near, close to, approximately
He was here about one month ago. The movie was about a boy and his dog.
ABOVE prep. - at a higher level
The cloud was above the mountain.
ABSURD adj. - very unreasonable, illogical, or inappropriate
The argument was absurd.
ACCEPT v., ACCEPTANCE n., ACCEPTABLE adj. - approval or agreement
John accepted the contract. The contract was acceptable.
ACCESS n., v., ACCESSIBLE adj. - ability to enter or make use of
Mary had access to money. She accessed the computer
ACCIDENT n., ACCIDENTAL adj., ACCIDENTALLY adv. - unforeseen or unplanned event
They met by accident in the shop.
ACCOUNT n., v., ACCOUNTABLE adj., ACCOUNTING n., ACCOUNTANT n. - Explanation or reason, sometimes dealing with money or time
John's bank account had $100. The accountant balanced the books.
ACCUSE v., ACCUSATION n. - to charge with an offense or crime
The man was accused of stealing.
ACROSS adv. - on the opposite side
The house was across the river.
ACT n., v., ACTION n., ACTOR n., ACTIVE adj. - to do something; performance or accomplishment
She acted decisively. He likes active sports.
ADD v., ADDITION n., ADDITIONAL adj. ADDITIONALLY adv. - to increase
He added one room to the house. John knows how to add two plus two.
ADDRESS n., v. - to communicate directly, a location for contact
Mr. Smith addressed the audience. We found the address of the hotel.
ADMINISTER v., ADMINISTRATOR n., ADMINISTRATION n. - to manage or supervise
The teacher administered the test. John is the administrator of the school.
ADMIT v., ADMISSION n. - to accept or acknowledge
She admitted that she was wrong. The price of admission is $5 dollars.
ADULT adj., n. - fully developed and mature
Entrance was restricted to adults only.
ADVANCE n., v., ADVANCEMENT n. - to move forward, promote or improve
He advanced the clock one hour.
ADVERTISE v. ADVERTISEMENT n. - to announce publicly
The car was advertised in the newspaper.
ADVISE v., ADVICE n. - to give information or recommendation
The police advised him to talk to a lawyer. That was good advice.
AFFECT v. - to influence
The computer was affected by the dusty air.
AFRAID adj. - to fear
We are all afraid of the dark.
AFTER adj., adv. - later in time or place
John went after 4 O'Clock. He left after Mary.
AGAIN adv. - another time
The car is out of order again.
AGAINST prep. - in opposition or opposite direction
The fish was swimming against the current. Mary voted against the candidate.
AGE n., v. - to become old; the time of life
The car seemed to age very fast. John's father died at an advanced age.
AGENCY n., AGENT n. - company or person that helps to achieve some goals
The employment agency found a job for Mary. My insurance agent offered me a good deal.
AGGRESSION n., AGGRESSIVE adj. - to attack or fight
The tiger was very aggressive.
AGO adj., adv. - earlier than the present time
John's father died long ago. Two years ago Mary got married.
AGREE v., AGREEMENT n. - to reach common consent
John agreed to buy the car. He reached an agreement with the car dealer.
AGRICULTURE n. - cultivation of the land and raising of crops.
The history of agriculture goes back thousands of years.
AID n., v. - to help or provide support
Mary received financial aid for her studies. John aided the man in the wheelchair.
AIM n., v. - to locate a goal or point a weapon
He aimed the pistol at the bird.
AIR n., v. - the atmosphere, to expose to the atmosphere
All mammals breathe air. She aired the carpet after cleaning it.
AIRCRAFT, AIRPLANE n. - vehicle that travels through the air.
The airplane was two hours late.
AIRPORT n. - a place where airplanes can operate.
New York has two major airports.
ALARM n., v. - a signal that warns of danger
The fire alarm sounded in the middle of the night. The chickens were alarmed by the barking dog.
ALBUM n. - a book for storing a collection
His album had many rare photographs.
ALIVE adj. - to live
We found the dog alive and well.
ALL - everything or everyone; the whole amount
All the king's horses and all the king's men couldn't put Humpty Dumpty together again.
ALLY n., v., ALLIANCE n. - a connection or relationship
England and the United States were allies during World War II.
ALMOND adj., n. - a cream-colored, elliptical nut; the color of an almond
We ate ice cream with roasted almonds.
ALMOST adj. - very nearly but not exactly or entirely
He had almost reached the door when he fell.
ALONE adj. - separated from others; without company; single
She sat alone in the kitchen.
ALONG prep. - in parallel; together with
We walked along the bank of the river. Mary went along with our plans.
ALREADY adv. - prior to a specified time
We had already had breakfast when John came.
ALSO adv. - in addition
We had eggs for breakfast and also bacon.
ALTHOUGH conj. - even though
She still rides a bicycle although she is 78 years old.
ALWAYS adv. - all the time
She is always happy to see me.
AM v. - first person singular of verb BE
I am very happy.
AMMUNITION n. - projectiles or explosives for war
The soldiers did not have enough ammunition for their guns.
AMONG prep. - in the middle; in between
Mary was among the visitors to the school.
AMOUNT n., v. - a quantity
The amount of food was not enough. The bill amounts to $10.
ANARCHY n. - no government or administration
The anarchy of the country made it hard to establish a business.
ANCESTOR n. - a forefather or progenitor
Our ancestors established traditions the we still follow today.
ANCIENT adj. - very old
The ancient stone walls were crumbling.
AND conj. - in addition
John and Mary will go to the party.
ANGER n., v., ANGRY adj. - emotional displeasure; irritability
Bad service angers her. She gets angry when the mail is late.
ANGLE n., v., ANGULARITY n. - two lines diverging from a common point
The car was parked at an angle instead of parallel.
ANIMAL n. - a living organism that is not a plant
Dogs and pigs are intelligent animals.
ANNIVERSARY n. - yearly commemoration
My aunt and uncle celebrated their 20th wedding anniversary.
ANNOUNCE v., ANNUNCIATION n. - to publicly declare
The winners of the contest were announced on Friday.
ANOTHER adj. - different from a previous one
John ordered another drink.
ANSWER n., v. - a response to a request
John did not receive an answer to his letter.
ANY adj., ANYBODY n., ANYTHING n. - a selection without restriction
You can choose any flavor of ice cream that you want.
APOLOGIZE v., APOLOGY n. - to ask forgiveness
John apologized for what he said, but his apology was not well received.
APPEAL n., v. - a request for help or sympathy
He appealed to their sense of justice.
APPEAR v., APPEARANCE n., APPARENTLY adv. - to become visible; look like; seem
The car appeared suddenly. He maintained the appearance of neutrality.
APPLE n. - a round fruit with small seeds.
Newton was inspired when an apple fell from a tree.
APPOINT v., APPOINTMENT n. - an official designation; arrangement for a meeting
The president appointed an assistant. Mary had an appointment with a doctor.
APPROPRIATE adj., v., APPROPRIATION n. - adequate; to take exclusive possession
She wore a dress appropriate for the occasion. The city appropriated his property.
APPROVE v., APPROVAL n. - to accept as satisfactory
The engineer approved the plan. The engineer gave his approval.
APRIL n. - The fourth month of the year.
April showers bring May flowers. It is very rainy in April.
ARE v. - second person singular and plural of verb BE
You are very happy. They are happy too.
AREA n. - a region
The area next to the building was used for parking.
ARGUE v., ARGUMENT n. - to provide a reason
The customers argued over who should pay the bill.
ARM n., v. - a part of the body connected to the hand; a weapon
You cannot hug a child with nuclear arms.
ARMY n. - a group of people trained for war.
The army prepared to defend the border.
AROUND adv., prep. - to go in a circle
He went around the corner.
ARREST n., v. - to stop; to keep in custody
The police arrested the thief.
ARRIVE v. - to reach a destination
The airplane arrived on time.
ART n., ARTIST n., ARTISTIC adj. - an occupation requiring skill
The artist specialized in abstract art.
ARTILLERY n. - heavy guns
The artillery pounded the walls of the castle.
AS adv., conj. - in the way or manner
The computer was as hot as a stove. I lived in the same building as my brother.
ASH n. - the remains of burning something
The house burned down and only the ashes were left.
ASK v. - to request
She asked him if he spoke English.
ASLEEP adj., adv. - to sleep.
John was asleep in bed.
ASSIST v., ASSISTANCE n. - to help
John assisted the old lady to cross the street.
ASTRONOMY n., ASTRONOMICAL adj., ASTRONOMICALLY adv. - study of stars; a large quantity
The price was astronomically high. You need a telescope to study astronomy.
AT prep. - indicates a location or time
She came at 5 O'Clock. We waited at the bus station.
ATMOSPHERE n., ATMOSPHERIC adj. - air; environment
The arguments created a tense atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure decreased as the airplane gained altitude.
ATOM n., ATOMIC adj. - the smallest particle of an element; a small quantity
An atom of hydrogen has one proton and one electron. An atomic bomb uses uranium or plutonium.
ATTACH v., ATTACHMENT n. - to connect or put together
There was a check attached to the letter.
ATTACK n., v., ATTACKER n. - to work against using physical or verbal force
The terrorists attacked the embassy.
ATTEMPT n., v. - to make an effort; try
John attempted to set a new record.
ATTEND v., ATTENTION n. - to look after; participate
It has come to my attention that you are late in your payments. Mary attended the science class.
ATTRACT v., ATTRACTION n. - to pull together
A restaurant with good food attracts many customers.
AUGUST n. - the eighth month of the year
It is always very hot in August.
AUNT n. - a sister of your mother or father
My aunt had a birthday on Sunday.
AUTHORITY n. - power to influence
The police have the authority to arrest criminals.
AUTOMATIC adj., AUTOMATICALLY adv., AUTOMATION n. - having a self-regulating mechanism
The lights turned on automatically.
AUTOMOBILE n. - a vehicle for personal transportation
The automobile had four doors.
AUTUMN n. - fall season, late in life
The leaves of the trees turn red in the autumn.
AVERAGE adj. n. - value representative of the members of a group
The man was of average height - not too tall and not too short.
AVOID v., AVOIDANCE n. - to stay away
He avoided an accident by pressing the brakes.
AWAKE adj., v. - to stop sleeping
John was awake by 5 AM. He woke up at 4 AM.
AWARD n., v. - a gift or prize
John was awarded a medal for his heroism. John received an award for heroism.
AWARE adj. - to notice or know
Mary was aware that the trip would be difficult.
AWAY adv. - in a different direction
She looked away from John and saw the ocean.
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BABY n., v. - a very young child; an infant; to treat with great care
The baby is 14 months old. John babied his new car.
BACK adj., n., v. - the rear part of the body; provide support
His back was burned by the sun. Several people backed the proposal.
BACON n. - pork belly that has been cured and smoked.
He had bacon and eggs for breakfast.
BAD, WORSE, WORST adj., BADLY adv. - unacceptable; unpleasant
The child behaved badly during the party. He was a bad child. Michael is worse than Brian, but Jerry is the worst.
BAG n., v. - a flexible container for carrying something; a sack
John bagged the groceries. Mary put her shoes in a bag.
BAGGAGE n. - container for carrying clothing while traveling
John lost his baggage when he flew to New York.
BALANCE n., v. - equality; equilibrium; symmetry; total
He used a balance to check the weight. The auditor tried to balance the books.
BALL n. - a round object
Balls are used many games. Keep your eye on the ball.
BALLOON n., v. - an inflatable bag; an increase
There were several balloons filled with helium at the party. Her figure ballooned as she gained weight.
BALLOT n., v. - a sheet of paper for voting; to vote
Most of the candidates in the ballot were unknown.
BAN n., v. - to forbid or prohibit
Cigarette smoking was banned in the restaurant.
BANANA n. - an elongated tropical fruit.
Mary likes ripe bananas.
BANK n., v. - a place to keep something of value; to save; the margin of a river
Mary has a lot of money in the bank. The fish came close to the bank of the river.
BAR n., v. - an elongated structure; a place where alcohol is sold; to block passage
The entrance to the street was barred. In the evening, we went to the bar for a beer.
BARREL n. - a large cylindrical container
They collected rain water in a barrel.
BARRIER n. - an obstacle or obstruction
A barrier prevented us from entering the street.
BASE n., v., BASIC adj., BASICALLY adv. - the bottom or foundation; fundamental
The base of the tower is unstable. A barrel is basically a container.
BASKET n. - a container made of woven material
The guests came with a basket of fruit.
BATTLE n., v. - an organized fight
The doctors battled the epidemic.
BE aux., v. (BE, WAS, BEEN) - auxiliary verb with irregular conjugation.
I was. I am. I will be. You are. He is. She is. We are. They are.
BEAN n. - the seed of a leguminous plant
Don't spill the beans.
BEAR n., v. (BEAR, BORE, BORN), BEARABLE adj. - a large animal; to support
He could hardly bear the weight of the baggage.
BEAT n., v. (BEAT, BEAT, BEATEN) - to strike; a regular rhythm
The thieves beat him up. They danced to the beat of the music.
BEAUTY n., BEAUTIFUL adj., BEAUTIFULLY adv. - pleasing to the eye
Several beautiful girls swam in the ocean.
BECAUSE conj. - for the reason that
Mary did not go because she was sick.
BECOME v. (BECOME, BECAME, BECOME) - to come into existence
Mary became a doctor last year.
BED n. - a piece of furniture on or in which to lie and sleep
John was asleep in bed.
BEEF n., v. - the meat of a cow or bull; to add strength
Mary ate beef stew for supper. They beefed up the supports of the bridge.
BEEN v. - past participle of the verb BE
He had been at home since 5 PM.
BEER n. - an alcoholic drink made from fermented grain
We had a beer with our supper.
BEFORE adj., adv. - at an earlier time
You have to walk before you can run.
BEGIN v. (BEGIN, BEGAN, BEGUN), BEGINNING n. - to do the first part of an action; start
We will begin in chapter one. Hurry, the class has already begun.
BEHIND adj., adv. - toward the back
The pillow fell behind the sofa.
BELIEF n., BELIEVE v. - to hold an opinion
Many people believe in the afterlife. That is a popular belief.
BELL n. - a hollow metallic device that gives off a reverberating sound when struck
The church bell rang early in the morning.
BELONG v. - to be suitable, appropriate
The red shoes belong to Mary.
BELOW adv. - at a lower place
The temperature was below freezing.
BEND n., v. (BEND, BENT, BENT) - to turn from a straight course
The car went around the bend. John bent a piece of wire.
BEST adj. - superlative of GOOD; excelling all others
John knows where to get the best ice cream.
BETRAY v., BETRAYAL n. - to deliver to an enemy; deceive
Benedict Arnold betrayed his country.
BETTER adj. - comparative of GOOD
John speaks English better than German.
BETWEEN prep. - in space separating two things
You have to choose between vanilla and chocolate.
BIG adj., BIGGER, BIGGEST - of large size
The elephant was very big. It was bigger than the lion.
BILL n., v. - an itemized list of the cost; the jaws of a bird
John received the bill from the doctor.
BILLION n. - one thousand million; 1,000,000,000
The government spent more than one billion dollars.
BIOLOGY n., BIOLOGICAL adj., BIOLOGICALLY adv., BIOLOGIST n. - The science of plant and animal life.
Biology is a fascinating subject.
BIRD n. - a warm-blooded vertebrate
A bird in the hand is word more than two in the bush.
BIRTH n. - the act of bringing forth new life. (See BEAR)
A birthday celebrates the anniversary of a birth.
BITE n., v.(BITE, BIT, BITTEN) - to seize with the teeth or jaws
He took a big bite of the fruit. He bit the fruit.
BITTER adj. - an unsavory or disagreeable taste.
The cheese had a bitter taste.
BLACK adj., BLACKNESS n. - very dark in color
I rode a black horse last Sunday.
BLADE n. - the cutting part of a knife; the leaf of a grass
The knife blade was very sharp.
BLAME v. - to hold responsible
They blamed the woman for the mistake.
BLANKET n., v. - heavy cover
I slept under a warm blanket.
BLESS v., BLESSING n. - to consecrate by religious rite
Mary received a blessing from the pope.
BLEED v. (BLEED, BLED, BLED) - to lose blood
John bled for five minutes after he cut his finger.
BLIND n., v., BLINDLY adv., BLINDNESS n. - without eyes or vision
The blind man walked with a cane. Mary was blinded by the bright sunlight.
BLOCK n., v. - a piece of material used for building. To obstruct passage.
The small house was made of concrete blocks. A donkey blocked the road.
BLOOD n., BLOODY adj. - the fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins
John got a blood transfusion when he was sick.
BLOW v. (BLOW, BLEW, BLOWN)- a current of air; a forcible impact
The children were blowing soap bubbles.
BLUE adj. - the color blue; a sad mood
There were no clouds and the sky was blue.
BOARD n., v. - a flat piece of material; to climb into a ship; a table set with a meal
The floor was made of pine boards. John paid $30 dollars per day for room and board.
BOAST n., v. - to speak with excessive pride
The man boasted that he was the best carpenter.
BOAT n. - a ship for travel on water
We traveled from Mexico to Spain by boat.
BODY n. - the main part of an object
You can have a good body if you exercise and have a good diet.
BOIL n., v. - to generate bubbles of vapor when heated
We boiled some water to make coffee.
BOLD adj. - standing out prominently
The sign was printed in bold letters.
BOMB n., v. - an explosive device; to attack with explosives
A bomb explosion destroyed the building.
BOND adj., n., v. - to bind together; a monetary guarantee
The pieces of wood were bonded with glue.
BONE n. - one of the hard parts of the skeleton
Mary fell and broke a bone in her arm.
BOOK n., v. - a long printed literary composition; to make an appointment
I read the book from cover to cover. John booked a flight to Europe.
BORDER n., v. - an outer part or edge; to create an edge
We need a passport to cross the border.
BORN adj., v. - past participle of BEAR
Mary was born in Mexico.
BORROW v. - to receive something with the intention of returning it.
John borrowed fifty dollars from Mary.
BOTH pron. - the one as well as the other
John and Mary are both single.
BOTTLE n., v. - a rigid container with a narrow neck; to preserve in a bottle
We ordered a bottle of wine with supper.
BOTTOM n., v. - the underside of something; to go to lowest point.
The formula was at the bottom of the page.
BOW n., v. - to bend into a simple curve
American Indians hunted with bows and arrows.
BOWL n. - a container with a broad mouth
The soup was served in white bowls.
BOX n., v. - a rigid container with or without a cover; to put something in a box
Mary got a box of chocolates.
BOY n. - a male child
The boy had a blue shirt.
BOYCOTT n., v. - refusal to deal with
People were boycotting the store.
BRAIN n. - the major organ of the nervous system
Psychologists study the function of the brain.
BRAKE n., v. - to stop;
He applied the brake to stop the car.
BRANCH n., v. - a separation from the main portion
John cut the branches of the tree.
BRASS n. - a metal made from copper and zinc
There was a brass decoration on the wall.
BRAVE adj. - having courage
The brave fireman saved the boy from the fire.
BREAD n., v. - a food made from baked fermented grain
We had a bread and butter with our dinner.
BREAK n., v. (BREAK, BROKE, BROKEN) - to fragment into small pieces; a discontinuity
The cat broke the cup.
BREAKFAST n. - the first meal of the day; literally, to break the fast
John had cereal and milk for breakfast.
BREATH n., BREATHE v. - to inhale air into the lungs
He had difficulty breathing because of the smoke. He was out of breath.
BREED v. (BREED, BRED, BRED) - to produce offspring
The farmer breeds chickens.
BRICK n. - a piece of material used for building smaller than a BLOCK
The brick house was on top of the hill.
BRIDGE n., v. - a path over an obstacle
The Brooklyn bridge is in New York.
BRIEF adj., n. - of short duration; a short written document
We had a brief meeting in the afternoon.
BRIGHT adj. BRIGHTLY adv. - radiating or reflecting light; intelligent
The flowers looked beautiful in the bright sunlight.
BRING v. (BRING, BROUGHT, BROUGHT) - to carry from another place
John brought a bottle of wine. Mary will bring a cake.
BROAD adj., BROADLY adv. - wide
Mary had a broad smile.
BROADCAST n., v. - to send in all directions
The radio broadcast was in English.
BROIL v. - to cook by radiant heat
Mrs. Smith broiled the chicken in the oven.
BROTHER n., BROTHERLY adj. - a male who has the same parents as another
John's brother is a doctor.
BROWN adj. - the color brown
John wore brown shoes to the party.
BRUSH n., v. - a device with bristles set into a handle; to touch lightly
You have to brush your teeth every day.
BUBBLE n., v. - a small gas globule
The soda started bubbling as soon as it was opened.
BUDGET n., v. - an allocation of funds for a specific purpose
The company budget has enough money for a new computer.
BUILD v. (BUILD, BUILT, BUILT), BUILDING n. - to construct; develop systematically
Mr. Smith wants to build a new house. His current house was built 30 years ago.
BULL n. - a mature male of various usually large animals; (female: COW)
In Spain, bullfighters tease and then kill the bulls.
BULLET n. - ammunition for a small gun
The pistol did not have bullets.
BURN n., v. (BURN, BURNED, BURNT) - to destroy by heat or fire
The candle burned with a bright flame.
BURST v. (BURST, BURST, BURST) - to break open suddenly
The balloon burst with a pop.
BURY v. - to hide or conceal by covering with something
The lady died on Thursday and they buried her on Friday.
BUS n., v. - a large motor vehicle designed to carry passengers
We rode by bus from Washington to New York.
BUSINESS adj., n. - an organization for commercial transactions
John went on a business trip to Spain.
BUSY adj. - to be occupied by an activity
Mary was very busy on Friday.
BUT conj. - an exclusion or exception
She was busy, but she still had time to read the book.
BUTTER n., v. - the fat from milk; to spread with butter
We had bread and butter with our breakfast.
BUTTON n., v. - a small disk used as a fastener for clothing; to fasten
John forgot to button his shirt.
BUY v. (BUY, BOUGHT, BOUGHT) - to obtain in exchange for something
I bought some bread this morning. I will buy milk tonight.
BY prep. - in proximity to; near
The cat sat by my feet.
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CABBAGE n. - a leafy vegetable
The cabbage soup was delicious.
CABINET n. - a place used for storage; a group of administrators
We stored the canned food in the kitchen cabinet.
CAKE n. - a sweet baked pastry
John had some cake for dessert.
CALENDAR n. - a system for organizing the days of the year
The modern calendar has 12 months.
CALL n., v. - to speak in a loud voice
John called me this morning.
CALM adj., n., v. - quiet, peaceful
The weather was calm after the storm.
CAMERA n. - a device for taking pictures
I bought a new camera three months ago.
CAMP n., v. - a place in the country usually for recreation
We went camping during the summer.
CAMPAIGN n., v. - a series of operations designed to achieve a result
The election campaign brought many new voters.
CAN v. (CAN, COULD, COULD) - auxiliary verb; n., v. (CAN, CANNED, CANNED) - a small container; to preserve in a can.
We opened a can of sardines. You can open the can. She could not open it.
CANCEL v., CANCELLATION n. - to eliminate or remove
They cancelled the game because of rain.
CANCER n. - a disease; sign of the zodiac
His father died of lung cancer because he smoked.
CANDIDATE n. - a person suitable for a particular position
Our candidate for president lost the election.
They brought a box of candy to the party.
CAPITAL n. - the seat of power of a country or state
Washington, D.C. is the capital of the United Sates.
CAPTURE n., v. - take hold of, bag; take prisoner
We tried to capture the cat, but it ran away.
CAR n. - a vehicle for personal transportation
John drives a black car.
CARD n. - a small paper document
We played cards after supper.
CARE n,. v. CAREFUL adj., CAREFULLY adv. - to take care; (opposite: CARELESS adj., CARELESSNESS n.)
He took good care of his chickens. He was careful with the eggs.
CARROT n. - an orange, elongated root vegetable
Mary made a salad of carrots and raisins.
CARRY v., CARRIER n. - to lift and move away
Mary could not carry the heavy box.
CASE n. - a set of circumstances; an enclosed cabinet
The detectives could not solve the case of missing boat. Mary put the cups in a display case.
CASH n., v. - transfer money; money
I need to get some cash for my trip. I will cash a check at the bank.
CAST n., v. (CAST, CAST, CAST) - to throw to the ground; to mold
The gambler cast the dice. They casted the bronze statue in this factory.
CAT n. - a small domestic animal; feline
Mary has a black cat. Some people are afraid of black cats.
CATCH n., v. (CATCH, COUGHT, COUGHT) - to trap
He caught a fish last Sunday. Mr. Smith could not catch his dog.
CAUSE n., v. - a reason
Sooner or later, smoking causes cancer.
CELEBRATE v., CELEBRATION n. - a festivity or ceremony.
She celebrated her birthday last November.
CELL n., CELLULAR adj. - an isolated enclosure
Human blood has red and white cells. The thief was imprisoned in a jail cell.
CENTER n., v., CENTRAL adj., CENTRALLY adv. - the middle or focus
She loved to be the center of attention. We put the pot in the center of the table.
CENTURY n. - one hundred years
The airplane was invented in the twentieth century.
CEREMONY n., CEREMONIAL adj., CEREMONIALLY adv. - a formal ritual,
The marriage ceremony took place in a big church.
CERTAIN adj., CERTAINLY adv., CERTAINTY n. - to be sure; without doubt
He was certain that he had put the money on the table.
CHAIN n., v. - to join together; provide continuity
The dog was chained to the wall. The crash started a chain reaction.
CHAIR n., v. - a seat; an important position
There were four chairs around the table. Mr. Smith chaired the meeting.
CHAIRMAN n., CHAIRWOMAN n. - a person in an important position
The chairman asked for silence.
CHALLENGE n., v. - to demand; an invitation to compete
John challenged Roger to a game of chess.
CHAMPION n. - an overall winner
John was a chess champion.
CHANCE n. - an opportunity; luck
Lottery is a game of chance.
CHANGE n., v. - transform; alter
Mary changed her clothes. The weather will change tomorrow.
CHARGE n., v. - to load; add electricity
We had to charge the battery to start the car.
CHASE n., v. - go after
The dog chased the cat.
CHECK n., v. - a document to transfer money; to review; to stop
He wrote a check for the rent. John checked to see if mail had come.
CHEER n., v., CHEERFUL adj. - to be happy; to encourage
Mary was cheerful after wining the lottery.
CHEESE n. - a food made from curdled milk
I had a grilled cheese sandwich for lunch.
CHEMICAL adj., CHEMISTRY n. - the study of atoms, molecules and their reactions
Mary studied chemistry at the university. The burning of wood is a chemical reaction.
CHERRY n. - a small round fruit, usually red
Mrs. Smith made a cherry pie.
CHEST n,. - the thorax; a box with a lid used for storage
The doctor took a chest X-ray to check for cancer. John keeps his photos in a wooden chest.
CHICKEN n. - a common domestic bird
The farmer raised chickens to sell eggs.
CHIEF n. - a leader; main manager
The chief of police spoke on the radio today.
CHILD n. (plural: CHILDREN) - a young person
The child was dressed in blue. Several children were playing.
CHOCOLATE n. - a drink or candy made from cacao beans
John brought some chocolate candies for dessert.
CHOICE n., CHOOSE v. (CHOOSE, CHOSE, CHOSEN) - a selection
You have two choices: chocolate or vanilla. You have to choose between chocolate and vanilla.
CHURCH n. - a building or organization for religious practice
Mary went to church on Sunday.
CIRCLE n., v., CIRCULAR adj., CIRCULARLY adv. - a round geometrical figure; to have the shape of a circle
The dog circled around the snake. The Olympic flag has five circles.
CITIZEN n. - an inhabitant; an well-liked person
John was a citizen of the United States.
CITY n. - a place with a large population
New York city is famous for its high buildings.
CIVILIAN adj. - non-military
There were few civilians at the army base.
CLAIM n., v. - to assert or demand
John claimed that he saw a ship yesterday.
CLASH n., v. - confront; fight; conflict
The two armies clashed throughout the day.
CLEAN adj., v., CLEANLINESS n. - without impurity; free from contamination
You should only drink clean water. Mary cleaned the house yesterday.
CLEAR adj., v., CLARIFY v., CLEARNESS n., CLARITY n. - transparent, pure; to make clean
The water was completely clear. John should clear his papers from the table. The explanation clarified the meaning.
CLIMATE n. - the typical weather
Florida has a warm climate.
CLIMB n., v. - to go up
We climbed the mountain last weekend. John needs to climb the stairs.
CLOCK n., v. - an instrument to measure time; a measure of time (See also O'CLOCK)
The car was clocked at 60 miles per hour. The clock on the wall is slow.
CLOSE adj., v., CLOSURE n. - very near; to block entry; to end operation
The street was closed because of an accident. Mary and John were close friends.
CLOTH n., CLOTHE v., CLOTHING n. - a material made by weaving; to dress in cloth
Mary was clothed in a red dress. Her clothing was made of red cloth.
CLOUD n., v., CLOUDINESS n., CLOUDY adj. - lacking transparency; vapor
It was a cloudy and rainy day. There were dark clouds in the sky.
COAL n. - a fossil fuel
Coal and petroleum are the primary fuels of industry.
COAST n., v., COASTAL adj. - the place where the land and water meet; to travel without power
The Atlantic ocean is along the east coast of the United States. The car coasted downhill with the motor off.
COAT n., v. - to cover; a heavy garment for outdoor use
Mary coated the bread with butter. John put on his coat and hat.
COFFEE n. - a drink made from roasted grains; coffee beans
Mary likes her coffee with cream and sugar.
COLD adj., n., COLDLY adv., COLDNESS n. - a low temperature; without warmth (see COOL)
The soup was cold. John was received coldly by his neighbors.
COLLAR n., v. - something worn around the neck
We always put a collar on the dog. The collar of the shirt was dirty.
COLLECT v., COLLECTION n. - to bring together; gather; accumulation
John collected stamps since he was a child. He has a big collection.
COLLEGE n. - a school for advanced study
John went to college in Texas.
COLONY n., COLONIAL adj., COLONIZE v. - to establish a place to live
There was a colony of insects in the tree. Spain colonized America.
COLOR n., v. - an optical property based on the reflection of light
The primary colors are red, blue and yellow.
COMBINE v., COMBINATION n. - to bring together; a specific sequence
Mary combined a red shirt with a brown skirt. The combination was not good.
COME v. (COME, CAME, COME) - to get closer; approach
John came for dinner yesterday. Mary will come tonight.
COMFORT n., v., COMFORTABLE adj. - a satisfying experience; to give hope
Mary tried to comfort the crying child. These shoes are very comfortable.
COMMAND v., COMMANDER n., COMMANDMENT n. - an order that must be obeyed; a law
The commander commanded us to stop fighting. There are 10 religious commandments.
COMMENT n., v. - to say something
John made a comment about the high prices. Mary also commented about the prices.
COMMITTEE n. - a group of people appointed to study something
The budget committee will find out the best way to spend the money.
COMMON adj., COMMONLY adv. - ordinary; with shared attributes
The two sisters had a lot in common. They both had the common cold.
John had not communicated with Mary for 3 months. They could not communicate by telephone.
COMMUNITY n. - a group of people with common interests
They joined a community of retired persons.
COMPANY n. - a group of persons; a business organization;
It is better to be alone than in bad company. Large companies create many jobs.
COMPARE v., COMPARISON n., COMPARATIVE adj. - to examine the similarities and differences
You cannot compare apples and oranges.
COMPETE v., COMPETITION n. - an event where two or more people try to be the first to meet an objective
John entered a chess competition. They compete for a big trophy.
COMPLETE adj., v., COMPLETELY adv., COMPLETION n. - to finish; a whole thing
She felt completely satisfied with her work. John completed the assignment.
COMPLEX adj., COMPLEXITY n. - difficult to understand
Chemistry is complex subject. They did not understand the complexity of the problem.
COMPROMISE n., v. - a mutually agreeable solution;
They wanted different things, but they reached a compromise.
COMPUTE v., COMPUTER n., COMPUTATION n. - a mathematical calculation
John worked as a computer programmer. Navigation requires complex computations.
CONCERN n., v. - to worry; anxiety
She was concerned about the trip.
CONDEMN v., CONDEMNATION n. - to find guilty
The thief was condemned to spend 3 years in jail.
CONDITION n. - a circumstance, a requirement
He lent me the book on the condition that I return it by next week. The car was in very bad condition.
CONDUCT n., v., CONDUCTOR n. - behavior; to lead
The orchestra conductor had gray hair. You have to conduct yourself properly.
CONFERENCE n. - a large meeting
John went to a computer conference last week.
CONFESS v., CONFESSION n. - to tell the truth about bad behavior
The prisoner confessed about the crime.
CONFIRM v., CONFIRMATION n. - to verify the validity
The hotel confirmed John's reservations.
We congratulated Mary about her birthday. She received many other congratulations.
CONGRESS n. - a formal meeting of delegates
The U.S. congress is discussing new laws for medical insurance.
CONNECT v., CONNECTION n. - to join together
We need to connect the computers.
CONSERVE v., CONSERVATION n., CONSERVATIVE adj. - to save or preserve
Conserve your strength for the real fight. We need to conserve our natural resources.
CONSIDER v., CONSIDERATION n., CONSIDERATE adj. - to think about carefully; thoughtful
John considered buying the house on the hill.
CONSUME v., CONSUMER n., CONSUMPTION n. - to spend; to use completely
Mrs. Smith consumed twelve eggs in three days.
CONTAIN v., CONTAINER n. - to keep or control
Each box contains 12 candies. The containers were filled with candy.
CONTENT adj., n. - to be satisfied; something that is contained
Mary was content to be healthy. The contents of the box were not known.
CONTINENT n. - a large division of land in the Earth
Asia is the largest continent.
CONTINUE v., CONTINUAL adj., CONTINUOUS adj., CONTINUATION n. - without stopping
The children were continuously making noise. I stopped reading, but I will continue after supper.
CONTRACT n., v., CONTRACTION n. - an agreement; to shorten; to acquire or get
John signed the contract for the car. Mr. Smith contracted malaria in Africa. The word "can't" is a contraction of cannot.
CONTROL n., v., - to regulate
Vaccines are used to control diseases. Mr. Smith lost control of his car and had an accident.
CONVENTION n - a meeting of many persons; a general custom
There was a convention of engineers in the hotel. By convention, women wear a white dress to get married.
COOK n., v. - to prepare food by heating; a person who prepares food
Mary can cook Italian food. The restaurant had a very good cook.
COOKIE n. - a small flat cake
Mary baked some cookies last Saturday.
COOL adj., v. - to make colder; moderately cold
The night air was cool.
COOPERATE v., COOPERATION n. - to work together
All the team members cooperated to finish the project.
COPY n., v. - to create a duplicate of an original
We made five copies of the contract.
CORK n. - a stopper for a bottle
John removed the cork from the bottle and poured the wine.
CORN n. - a food grain
Corn originated in Mexico.
CORRECT adj., v., CORRECTION n. - to make right or fix an error
John knew the correct answer. We used a pencil to make a correction.
COST n., v. (COST, COST, COST) - the price of something
The fruits cost $2.00 dollars.
COTTON n. - a type of fiber
Mary was wearing a cotton shirt.
COUNT n., v., COUNTER n. - to associate numbers with something
We counted the number of dogs. The total count was five.
COUNTRY n. - a political state or nation; a field outside the city
His country of birth was Spain. Mary likes country music.
COURT n., v. - an assembly to decide judicial cases; to seek affection
The case was decided in a federal court. John was courting Mary three years ago.
COVER n., v. - to spread something over; to keep; to hide
Mary covered herself with her coat. The boy was covered with dust.
COW n. - a mature female of various usually large animals; (male: BULL)
Every day, the farmer had to milk the cows.
CRACK n., v. - to break; a sharp sound.
Mary cracked the eggs over the pan. The pot cracked from the heat.
CRAFT n., v. - an occupational skill; a vehicle
They taught crafts like sewing and carpentry. He drove the craft at a high speed.
CRASH n., v. - to break violently and noisily from a collision
John crashed his car against a tree. The tree came crashing down.
CREAM n., v., CREAMY adj. - the fat from milk; to make smooth
Mary likes coffee with cream. Mrs. Smith made a creamy soup.
CREATE v., CREATION n. - to make something new; CREATURE n. - something created, usually animate
John created a modern sculpture. John's creation received good reviews. Dragons are creatures of fantasy.
CREDIT n., v. - to give money or recognition; CREDITOR n. - one who gives credit.
The bank credited ten dollars to my account. You have to give John a lot of credit for his effort.
CREW n. - a team of people working together
John was a member of the ship's crew.
CRIME n. - illegal activity; CRIMINAL n. - one who performs illegal activities
It is a crime to kill someone. The jails are full of criminals.
CRISIS (plural: CRISES) n. - a dangerous moment
John had a financial crisis after his house burned down.
CRITIC n., CRITICIZE v. - to give an opinion; to identify defects or weakness
Mary criticized the design of the dress.
CROSS n., v. - an intersection of two straight lines; a perpendicular way; CRUCIFY v. a way of killing people in ancient Rome by nailing them to a cross
John crossed the river in a boat. Jesus was crucified on a cross.
CRUSH v. - to reduce in size by pressing; to defeat
We crushed the oranges to make some juice. John crushed his competitors at chess.
CRY n., v. - a loud shout; to shed tears
The baby woke up crying. Big boys don't cry.
CULTURE n., v., CULTURAL adj., CULTIVATE v. - to grow; a social tradition
People greet by kissing in some cultures. Mary cultured some yogurt yesterday. Farmers cultivate the land.
CUP n., v. - a small container, usually for liquids; the shape of a cup
John had a cup of coffee in the morning. The child cupped his hand.
CURE n., v. - to recover from illness; a medicine
There is no cure for old age. The doctor cured his fever.
CURRENT adj., n. CURRENTLY adv. - at the present time; a flow like water
Currently, she has no money. The river's current was too strong.
CURSE n., v. - bad words or bad wish
The young boy was punished for cursing. The witches put a curse on that house.
CURTAIN n. - a covering for a window
We were in a house with red curtains.
CUSTOM n., CUSTOMARY adj. - a habit or tradition; CUSTOMS n. - an inspection station for international visitors
It is his custom to drink some wine with his meal. The fruits were confiscated by customs to prevent introduction of parasites.
CUT n., v. (CUT, CUT, CUT) - to split with a sharp instrument
Mary cut her finger while preparing supper. John cut down the tree.
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DAMAGE n., v. - to harm or destroy
The house was damaged by the storm. There was not much damage.
DANCE n., v. - movement of the body, usually to the rhythm of music.
I could have danced all night. The tango is an Argentinian dance.
DANGER n., DANGEROUS adj., DANGEROUSLY adv. - something that can cause injury, pain or harm
It is dangerous to drive too fast, but she liked to live dangerously.
DARK adj., n., DARKLY adv., DARKNESS - without light; black in color
We could not see anything in the darkness. It was so dark that you could not see your hand in front of your face.
DATE n., v. - a specific time in the calendar; a time for a meeting;
Do you know the date when Columbus discovered America? John and Mary dated for three months before they married.
DAUGHTER n. - a female child
John has three daughters and no sons.
DAY n. - the time when the sun is usually seen; 24 hours
He did not eat for three days. In summer the days are very long and the nights are short.
DEAD adj., DEADLY adv., DEATH n. - not living (see DIE)
Her uncle was found dead in his bed. His death was unexpected.
DEAF adj. - without hearing
The deaf man used hand signs to communicate.
DEAL n., v. (DEAL, DEALT, DEALT), DEALER n. - to handle or distribute; an arrangement
The card dealer dealt the cards. A drug dealer was killed.
DEAR adj. DEARLY adv. - precious; expensive; an greeting
Dear Mr. Smith, how are you? The effort cost them dearly.
DEBATE n., v. - a discussion from several points of view; an argument
They debated about where to go on Sunday. The debate lasted one hour.
DEBT n. - something that is owed
He could not pay his debt of student loans.
DECEMBER n. - the last month of the year; the twelfth month
Christmas is an important holiday in December.
DECIDE v., DECISION n. - to reach a conclusion;
Mary could not decide between the pink or red dress. It was a difficult decision.
DECLARE v., DECLARATION n. - to state an intention or fact
John declared his love for Mary. Mary declared her wish for independence.
DECREASE adj., n., v. - to reduce; make smaller
The temperature decreased very rapidly. The decrease in temperature was great.
DEED n., v. - something that is done (see DO); an action; a document of ownership; to donate
John got the deed for his house. The murder was a horrible deed.
DEEP adj., DEEPLY adv., DEPTH n. - far below the surface
The farmers got water from a deep well. She looked deeply into his eyes.
DEFEAT n., v. - loss of a contest
Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo. Napoleon lost power after the defeat.
DEFEND v., DEVENSIVE adj., DEFENSE n.- to protect against aggression or attack
John knows how to defend himself. They say that the best defense is a good offense.
DEFICIT n., DEFICIENCY n. - a lack; low amount
The city could not pay due to the fiscal deficit. Eat well to avoid vitamin deficiencies.
DEFINE v., DEFINITION n. - explanation of the meaning; to mark the limits
What is the definition of "work"? John could not define the meaning.
DEGREE n. - a level or measure; an educational level
The temperature was 20 degrees Celsius. John has a degree in engineering. There was a high degree of correlation.
DELAY n., v. - to wait until later; to slow
The airplane was delayed one hour. There was a one-hour delay.
DELICATE adj. - subtle
The flower had a delicate fragrance. These negotiations are very delicate.
DELIVER v., DELIVERY n. - to set free; to take something to a person or address; to assist in giving birth
John delivered the package to Mary. Mary delivered a healthy baby.
DEMAND n., v. - to request with great authority
The workers demanded to be paid. Their demand was ignored.
DEMOCRACY n., DEMOCRATIC adj. - a form of government decided by voting
What is the difference between a democracy and a monarchy?
Mrs. Smith demonstrated how to decorate a cake. The demonstration lasted 15 minutes.
DENOUNCE v., DENUNCIATION n. - a public accusation or condemnation
The treasurer was denounced by the secretary.
DENY v., DENIAL n. - to declare untrue; to refuse acceptance
The treasurer denied taking the money. We did not belive his denial.
DEPEND v., DEPENDENT adj., n. - to place trust; rely on (opposite of INDEPENDENT)
Mary's mother depends on her help, but she does not like to be dependent.
DEPLOY v., DEPLOYMENT n. - to spread out; install
The equipment was deployed in the field. The deployment took two hours.
DEPRESS v., DEPRESSION n. - a low point or hole; to push down
The car hit a depression on the road. Please depress the button to ask for help.
DESCRIBE v., DESCRIPTION n. - listing of attributes
John described his adventures in India. His description was detailed.
DESERT n., v. - an empty place; to abandon
The Sahara desert is hot and dry.
DESSERT n. - a sweet dish served at the end of a meal
We had ice cream for dessert.
DESIGN n., v. - to devise for a specific function
The architect designed a beautiful house. His design was simple and practical.
DESIGNATE v., DESIGNATION n. - an indication; to assign
John was designated to drive after the party.
DESIRE n., v. - to wish strongly
John desired to spend a vacation in Hawaii.
DESTROY v., DESTRUCTION n. - to break or ruin
John destroyed his old papers. Wars cause a lot of destruction.
DETAIL n., v. - a small feature; to take care of the small features
John's explanation was very detailed. I don't like so many details.
DEVELOP v., DEVELOPMENT n. - to construct, build or process
John's daughter was developing into a great lady. Urban development is the evolution of the city.
DEVICE n., v. - a tool, procedure or technique
This is a device for cutting wood.
DEVISE v. - to invent or design
He needs to devise a new way for solving the problem.
DEVOTE v., DEVOTION n. - to give or dedicate for exclusive use
John devoted all his time to studying astronomy. The nun has great devotion for God.
DICTATE v., DICTATION n., DICTATOR n. - to command; to read for a person to transcribe; an absolute ruler
John dictated a letter to his secretary. The secretary took dictation. Hitler was a dictator.
DIE v. - to stop living (see DEAD)
The cat died two days ago. Nobody wants to die, but everybody dies.
DIET n., v. - to eat according to specific rules; the food eaten to maintain proper nutrition
Mary's diet is limited to 1800 calories. John dieted for 3 months.
DIFFERENT adj., DIFFERENTLY adv. - not similar, distinct
There are two different dogs. The two dogs behave very differently.
DIG v. (DIG, DUG, DUG) - to make a hole in the ground
You should not dig your own grave. John was digging for gold.
DIM adj., v., DIMLY adv., DIMNESS n. - to reduce the light or make dark
The room had dim lighting. It was dimly lit.
DINNER n. - the principal meal of the day
Mary invited us for dinner.
DIPLOMAT n., DIPLOMATIC adj. DIPLOMATICALLY adj. - skill in handling affairs peacefully
John was very diplomatic because he did not want to offend the guests.
DIRECT adj., v., DIRECTLY adj., DIRECTION n., DIRECTOR n. - to manage; without deviation or interruption; a particular way or course
John went directly to his office. The director organized the group. Mary went in the wrong direction.
DIRT n., DIRTY adj., v. - soil; to make unclean.
Please wash the dirty clothes. The dirt had a black color.
DISAPPEAR v., DISAPPEARANCE n. - to become invisible or go out of view
The cat disappeared during the night.
DISARM v., DISARMAMENT n. - take away arms
Peace returned after the troops were disarmed.
DISCIPLINE n., v. - to punish; to condition by training
The children behave well because they have good discipline at home.
DISCOVER v., DISCOVERY n. - to find something new
Columbus discovered America. The discovery of America changed the world.
DISCUSS v., DISCUSSION n. - to talk about a topic or for a specific purpose
They discussed about peace. The discussion lasted three hours.
DISEASE n. - a symptom of illness or bad health
Infectious diseases are transmitted by dirty water.
DISK n. - a round, flat object
Coins are usually metal disks.
DISLIKE v. - to find unpleasant
John dislikes cats, but loves dogs.
DISMISS v., DISMISSAL n. - to send away or ignore
John dismissed the negative idea. The student was dismissed from class.
DISPOSE v., DISPOSAL n. - to make available; eliminate
John has a company car at his disposal. The garbage disposal was not working.
DISPUTE n., v. - to argue or contradict
They disputed about the ownership of the book.
DISSIDENT n. - a person who opposes the government
The dissidents protested with big signs.
DISTANCE n., v. - an interval between two things; to move away
The distance between Washington and New York is 200 miles. Mary distanced herself from her relatives at an early age.
DIVIDE v., DIVISION n. - to break into parts
The result of dividing 6 by 2 is 3. Division is the opposite of multiplication.
DO v. (DO, DID, DONE) - to accomplish something; also auxiliary verb
I did my homework. My project is done. How did you do it?
DOCTOR n., v. - a person who practices medicine; to provide medical care or change something
My doctor recommends a low-fat diet.
DOCUMENT n., v. - an official paper; to record information about something
John documented his trip to China. The documents are very detailed.
DOG n., v. - a canine; to be obstinate
Mary has two dogs.
DOLLAR n. - a unit of American money
The book cost five dollars.
DOOR n. - an opening into a room
The bathroom door is closed.
DOUBLE adj., n., v. - to multiply times two
The bacteria doubled every two hours. Mary found an egg with a double yolk.
DOUBT n., v. - to distrust or lack confidence
I doubt that Mary will come today. I have many doubts.
DOWN adj., prep. - toward a lower physical position
Jack and Jill went down the hill.
DRAIN n., v. - to empty a liquid; a pipe for outflow of liquid
The drain in the bathroom was stopped up. The water did not drain.
DRAW v. (DRAW, DREW, DRAWN) - to pull from a container; to make an image with a pencil
John drew a picture of Mary. Playing poker, John drew two kings.
DREAM n., v. (DREAM, DREAMT, DREAMT) - thoughts and images during sleep; a strongly desired goal
Last night, I had a strange dream. I dreamt that I was flying.
DRESS n., v. - to put on clothes; a woman's robe
John was dressed in a black suit. Mary wore a red dress.
DRINK n., v. (DRINK, DRANK, DRUNK) - a liquid suitable for swallowing
I drank a glass of water this morning. John likes to drink beer.
DRIVE n., v. (DRIVE, DROVE, DRIVEN) - to set or keep in motion; the process of conducting a vehicle
We for a drive on Sunday. We drove to the country.
DROP n., v. - the quantity of fluid that falls in one spherical mass; to fall
John dropped the ball. Mary uses eye drops.
DRUG n., v. - chemical substance; the use of drugs
Heroin is an addictive drug. George was arrested for drug possession. The girl was drugged.
DRY adj., v., DRYLY adv., DRYNESS n. - to be without water; to remove water
Use the towel to dry the table. The day was hot and dry.
DUE adj., n. - something owed; owing as a debt
The payment is due on the first of the month.
DULL adj., v., DULLNESS n. - not sharp; mentally slow
Simon was a very dull person. The knife was so dull that it could not slice a tomato.
DURING prep. - throughout the duration of
He swims during the summer. The tree fell during the storm.
DUST n., v., DUSTY adj. - fine particles of earth or soil; to remove or apply dust
The room was very dusty. Mary used a broom to sweep the dust. The baker dusted the bread with powdered sugar.
DUTY n. - an obligation; a tax
John's duty is to train new employees. We had to pay a duty on the wine we brought from our trip.
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EACH pron. - every one; all
Each person will get some cake.
EAR n. - the organ for hearing; the fruiting spike of a cereal
Mr. Spock had pointed ears. We boiled the ears of corn.
EARLY adj., adv. - near the beginning of a period of time
The early bird gets the worm. I woke up early in the morning.
EARN v., EARNER n. - the payment received for work
Mary earns $20 dollars per hour.
EARTH n. - our planet; the soil or dirt on the ground
The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. This earth is good for agriculture.
EASE adj., v., EASY adv. - to do without effort; not difficult
He solved the problem with ease. The problem was easy. Mary eased herself into the comfortable chair.
EAST adj., n. - the direction toward the rising sun.
The Sun rises in the east. New York is in the east of the United States.
EAT v. (EAT, ATE, EATEN) - to consume food
John was not hungry, but he ate anyway. I don't like to eat when I am not hungry.
ECOLOGY n. - study of organisms and the environment
Professor Smith studies the ecology of the Mississippi river.
ECONOMY n., ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL adj., ECONOMICALLY adv. - the management of expenses; the reduction of expenses
The economy of the country has been bad recently. This is an economical car.
EDGE n., v. - the border of an object; to defeat by a small margin
This knife has a very sharp edge. Mary edged her classmates in the test.
EDUCATE v., EDUCATED adj., EDUCATION n. - to learn; learning or training
Mary was educated in Washington. Her education was in mathematics.
EFFECT n. - the result of an action; to perform or accomplish
The law goes into effect next week. The duty of the legislature is to effect the will of the citizens.
EFFORT n. - the amount of work to accomplish something
It takes a lot of effort to build a house.
EGG n., v. - the hard-shelled reproductive body produced by a bird
I would like eggs and bacon for breakfast.
EIGHT n., EIGHTH adj. - the number 8
A stop sign has eight sides. Mary's daughter is in the eighth grade.
EITHER adj., conj., pron. - one or the other
I don't like either book. Either Mary or John took the keys.
ELASTIC adj., ELASTICITY n. - flexible; capable of recovering size and shape after deformation
Her pants had an elastic band at the waist. Ceramics do not have much elasticity.
ELECT v., ELECTION n. - to select, usually by voting
There will be a presidential election soon. I hope they elect a good president.
ELECTRIC, ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC adj., ELECTRICALLY adv., ELECTRICITY n. - related to electrons and the flow of electrons
Electrical outlets in the US supply 110 volts. Lightening is caused by electric storms. I sent a message by electronic mail.
ELEMENT n. ELEMENTAL, ELEMENTARY adj. - something fundamental or basic
Water consists of the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Mary's daughter goes to elementary school.
ELEVEN n., ELEVENTH adj - the number 11
One dozen is eleven plus one. John's son is in the eleventh grade.
ELSE adv. - a different person, manner or place
She loves somebody else. What else did she say?
EMBASSY n. - the office of a foreign government
The Mexican embassy in Washington, D.C. is on Massachusetts avenue.
EMERGENCY adj., n. - something that requires immediate attention
John came late because he had an emergency at work. Emergency vehicles drove by with lights flashing.
EMIT v., EMISSION n. - to throw out or give off
Automobiles emit poisonous gases. The emissions pollute the atmosphere.
EMOTION n., EMOTIONAL adj., EMOTIONALLY adv. - a strong psychological feeling
The actor's emotional performance made the audience cry. People question Mary's emotional stability.
EMPLOY v., EMPLOYMENT n., EMPLOYEE n., EMPLOYER n. - to use; to provide work
John's company employs 250 people. John is an employee of the company which employs him.
EMPTY adj., EMPTINESS n. - containing nothing
The bottle was completely empty. We put the empty bottle in the trash.
END n., v. - the last or final portion; to terminate
At the end of the concert everybody applauded. Mary wants to end her relationship with John.
ENEMY n. - an opponent with aggressive intentions
Envy can be your worst enemy.
ENERGY n., ENERGIZE v., ENERGETIC adj., ENERGETICALLY adv. - with great force or power
It takes a lot of energy to move a big car.
ENFORCE v., ENFORCEMENT n. - to regulate or police
Society benefits from enforcement of the laws.
ENGINE n., ENGINEER n., v. - a mechanical appliance; the design of mechanical appliances
The engine of the car was powerful. Seven engineers designed the car.
ENJOY v., ENJOYMENT n. - to get pleasure
John and Mary enjoyed the concert.
ENOUGH adv., pron. - a sufficient number or amount
We already have enough cats. Two is more than enough.
ENTER v., ENTRANCE n. - to go into; a door or gateway
The entrance is on the left. Open the door and enter.
ENVIRONMENT n., ENVIRONMENTAL adj. - the surroundings
We have to take care of our environment to have a better world for our children.
ENVY n., v.. ENVIOUS adj. - jealous
Mary envied the woman with the big car.
EQUAL adj., v., EQUALITY n. - the same; identical
Two plus two equals four. The laws do not always provide equality for men and women.
EQUIP v., EQUIPMENT n. - to provide supplies
The soldiers were well equipped. Their equipment was very modern.
ESCAPE n., v. - to get away
The mouse escaped through a hole in the wall.
ESPECIAL adj., ESPECIALLY adv. - of great distinction or importance (synonym: SPECIAL)
Food seems more expensive, especially fruits.
ESSENCE n., ESSENTIAL adj., ESSENTIALLY adv. - the basic nature of something
The sea is essentially water. Mr. Smith was in essence an honest person.
ESTABLISH v., ESTABLISHMENT n. - to set up or bring into existence; a business
The English established colonies in America. We visited an establishment that sells computers.
ESTIMATE n., v. - to provide an approximation
John had to estimate the cost of a new computer. His estimate was two thousand dollars.
ETHNIC adj., ETHNICITY n. - related to the common racial, national or cultural origin
There are many ethnic neighborhoods in New York.
EVAPORATE v., EVAPORATION n. - to convert into vapor; disappear
We used evaporated milk to make the cake. The body cools by evaporation of sweat.
EVEN adj., adv. EVENLY adv. - at the same level; to a great extent; divisible by two
He was very smart even as a child. Two is an even number.
EVENT n. - something that happens
The concert was an event that we will not forget.
EVER adv. - always
More resources are needed by the ever increasing population.
EVERY adj. - each individual of a group
He skipped supper every day this month. John goes fishing every few days.
EVIDENCE n., EVIDENT adj. - to be obvious; to provide proof
The evidence was in his favor. The truth was evident.
EVIL adj. - causing harm; morally sinful
The murder was an evil act. The devil is evil.
EVOLVE v., EVOLUTION n. - to change and adapt; become better
Darwin developed the theory of evolution. Species evolve to adapt to their environment.
EXAMINE v., EXAMINATION n. - to inspect closely
John examined his new car carefully. The English examination was about verb conjugation.
EXAMPLE n., EXEMPLIFY v. - a pattern to be imitated
Gold is an example of a metal.
EXCELLENT adj. - of the highest quality
Mary prepared an excellent dinner yesterday.
EXCEPT v., prep., EXCEPTION n. - to exclude
We go to school every day except Sundays.
EXCHANGE n., v. - substitute one thing for another
John exchanged the book for a pen.
EXCUSE n., v. - a reason; to pardon
The prisoner did not have a good excuse for his crime.
EXECUTE v., EXECUTION n. - to put into effect; to kill
The prisoner was executed in an electric chair.
EXERCISE n., v. - to perform an action; physical movement
John exercised every morning. Exercise helps to build bigger muscles.
EXILE n., v. - to send away as punishment
The enemies of the king lived in exile.
EXIST v., EXISTENCE n. - the state of being
Does the soul really exist? The existence cannot be proved.
EXPAND v., EXPANSION n. - to increase in volume or size
The bubble expanded until it burst. Our business needs to expand to a bigger building.
EXPECT v., EXPECTATION n. - to anticipate or look forward to something
Mary expected John to pay for supper. Did John meet her expectation?
EXPERIENCE n., v. - to have practical knowledge or skill
He had good experience painting houses. He was an experienced painter.
EXPERIMENT n., v. - to try
Experiments help us to gain experience. Doctor Smith experimented with fats.
EXPERT n. - a person with special skill or knowledge
John is an expert computer designer.
EXPLAIN v., EXPLANATION n., EXPLANATORY adj. - to make plain or understandable
The teacher explained how to do the homework. His explanation was very clear.
EXPLODE v., EXPLOSION n. - to burst forth with sudden violence or noise
The balloon exploded with a loud noise. It was a small explosion.
EXPLORE v., EXPLORATION n., EXPLORATORY adj. - to investigate, study, or analyze
Columbus started the exploration of America.
EXPORT adj., n., v., EXPORTER n. - to carry or send a commodity to another country
The United States is great exporter of wheat.
EXPRESS adj., EXPRESSION n. - to give or convey an idea or opinion; indication of mood
John expressed his opinion at the meeting. Mary's face had a strange expression.
EXTEND v., EXTENSION n. - to make longer or bigger
John added an extension to his house. I would like to extend my vacation.
EXTRA adj. - additional
I would like to add an extra room to my house.
EXTREME adj., EXTREMELY adv. - to a high degree
John was extremely tired. We are expecting extreme weather conditions.
EYE n., v. - the organ of sight; to look
John was eyeing the cake. I got some dust in my eye.
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FACE n., v. - the front part of the human head; to confront
The soldiers faced great opposition. Her face had a nice smile.
FACT n. - something that is true or has actual existence
The facts helped to build a case against the cashier.
FACTORY n. - a building where something is manufactured
The automobile factory produced 100 cars per day.
FADE v. - to lose color or become invisible
The carpet faded after three months in the sun.
FAIL v., FAILURE n. - an unsuccessful attempt; a disappointment
The salesman failed to meet his quota. Mrs. Smith's business was a complete failure.
FAIR adj., n., FAIRNESS n. - just, impartial and honest; pleasing to the eye or mind
She was a fair maiden. The judgement of the court was fair.
FAITH n., FAITHFUL adj., FAITHFULLY adv. - strong allegiance; religious belief
John served his boss faithfully. Her faith in God provided her with strength.
FALL n., v. (FALL, FELL, FALLEN) - to be pulled by the force of gravity; autumn
John fell and broke his arm yesterday. The trees have beautiful colors in the fall.
FALSE adj., FALSELY adv., FALSEHOOD n. - something artificial or that is not true; a lie
The cashier was falsely accused of stealing money. Grandma wears false teeth.
FAMILY n. - a group of individuals related by ancestry; a group of individuals living under one roof
My family gathered to celebrate Christmas.
FAMOUS adj. - well-known; notable
Einstein is famous for his theory of relativity.
FANCY adj., v. FANCIFUL n. - excellent; to visualize or interpret
We went to a fancy restaurant on Friday. John is full of fanciful ideas.
FAR, FARTHER, FURTHER adj. - distant; away
The city was still far away. It was much farther than we thought. We still have to go further.
FAST adj. - with great speed; n., v. - to abstain from food
The car went very fast. John had to fast before his medical exam.
FAT, FATTER, FATTEST adj. - with a lot of grease; corpulent
Mary is getting fatter from eating too much. She was the fattest of the group.
FATHER n., v. - a man who has begotten a child
John's father was a carpenter.
FAULT n., v. - a defect; to blame
The accident was the driver's fault. Mary can't fault them for not coming.
FEAR n., v. - to feel anxiety (see AFRAID, FRIGHTEN)
We fear the night because we cannot see. This fear is irrational.
FEATHER n., v. - a plume from a bird; to furnish with feathers
Birds have their longest feathers in their wings.
FEBRUARY n. - the second month of the year.
February is usually very cold in New York.
FEED n., v. (FEED, FED, FED) - to give food
The farmer fed his chickens every morning.
FEEL v. (FEEL, FELT, FELT), FEELING n. - a sensation; intuition
Last summer, I felt very hot. I did not like that feeling.
FELLOW n - a companion; a confederate
He is a very good fellow, which nobody can deny.
FEMALE adj., n., FEMININE adj. - a girl or a woman
There were three females and one male at the meeting. Knitting is traditionally a feminine activity.
FENCE n. - a border or enclosure
A white fence separated the house from the road.
FERTILE adj. - agriculturally productive
The fertile valley provided all the food they needed.
FEW, FEWER, FEWEST adj. - a small number
There were few people at the meeting today. There were even fewer yesterday.
FIBER n. - a thread or filament
The cloth was made from silk fibers.
FIELD n., v. - a large area; to catch something
Corn grew tall in the fertile field. John fielded some questions during the meeting.
FIERCE adj. - very aggressive and combative
I did not like John's fierce attitude.
FIFTEEN n., FIFTEENTH adj. - the number 15
Mary's daughter celebrated her fifteenth birthday.
FIFTY n., FIFTIETH adj. - the number 50
John and Mary celebrated their fiftieth anniversary. There were fifty guests.
FIGHT n., v. (FIGHT, FOUGHT, FOUGHT) - combat or confrontation
The cat and the dog were fighting. It was a short fight.
FILE n., v. - a tool with cutting ridges for smoothing surfaces; a folder or cabinet where papers are kept; a row of persons or animals
Mary filed her nails. The secretary filed the documents. There was a long file of soldiers.
FILL n., v., FULL adj. - to put as much as possible; material used for filling
Mary filled the glass with water. The glass was full.
FILM n., v. - a thin coating; a motion picture
The water had a film of oil. We saw a nice film at the theater.
FINANCE n., v., FINANCIAL adj., FINANCIALLY adv. - management of money
John is an expert in finances. I could use some financial advice.
FIND n., v. (FIND, FOUND, FOUND) - to come upon by searching
Mary found a silver coin. What do you expect to find?
FINE adj., FINELY adv. - delicate; superior; FINE n., v. - money paid as punishment
Today was a fine day. John had to pay a fine for illegal parking.
FINGER n. - any of the terminating members of the hand; to point out
The human hand has five fingers.
FINISH n., v., FINAL adj. - to complete; the end; the last
John finished working at 5 PM. The final exam was on Friday.
FIRE n., v., - a flame; burning; to drive away; to discharge a gun
We used matches to start the fire. John has never fired a gun.
FIRM adj., n., FIRMLY adv. - having a solid structure that resists stress or pressure; a company or business
He shook my hand firmly. John had worked for the firm for 10 years.
FIRST adj., FIRSTLY adv. - number one in order precedence
The first lady is the wife of the president. First, let us eat.
FISH n., v. - an aquatic animal; FISHY adv. - doubt or suspicion; similar to a fish
We always eat fish on Friday. I like to go fishing. His explanation was fishy.
FIST n. - a closed hand
He hit him with his fist.
FIT adj., n., v., FITNESS n. - in good shape; suitable in size or design
The dress fit Mary very well. Exercise improves physical fitness.
FIVE n., FIFTH adj. - the number 5
Mary has five children. John is the fifth president of the company.
FIX n. v. - to repair; to be in a stable or unmoving position
Mary fixed her eyes on the gift. John fixed the car.
FLAG n., v. - a cloth insignia; a note or warning
The flag of the United States has 13 stripes. Mary flagged the errors in the document with a blue pencil.
FLASH n., v. - a burst of light; a short time interval
Lightening flashed during the storm. I saw a flash of white light.
FLAT adj. - a smooth level surface
The landscape was flat as far as we could see. John had a flat tire during the trip.
FLOAT n., v. - to stay above the surface of a liquid
Ice floats on water.
FLOOD n., v. - to overflow with water.
The streets were flooded after the heavy rain.
FLOOR n. - the lower surface of a room
Mary's house has marble floors.
FLOW n., v. - the passage of a fluid such as water
The river flowed under the bridge. The flow was rapid due to the recent rain.
FLOWER n., v., FLOWERY adj. - the blossom of a plant; the colorful reproductive organ of a plant
The trees flower in the spring. Roses are very popular flowers.
FLUID adj., n. - a liquid
The bottle had a yellow fluid.
FLY n., v. (FLY, FLEW, FLOWN) - to travel in the air; a winged insect
The birds flew in all directions. The dead cat attracted a lot of flies.
FOG n., v., FOGGY adj.- small particles in the air; cloudiness or confusion
We could not see far because of the morning fog. My mind was foggy after drinking whiskey.
FOLD n., v. - to bend a pliable material
Mrs. Smith folded the towels. You cannot fold a piece of paper in half more than 13 times.
FOLLOW v. - to go after someone or something
We followed the guide into the forest.
FOOD n. - something to eat.
The food in the restaurant was not very good.
FOOL n., v., FOOLISH adj. - a person lacking in judgment
Do not fool with the pistol. It is foolish to play with a gun.
FOOT n. (plural: FEET) - the terminal part of a leg; an American unit of measure equal to 30.48 centimeters
He was six feet tall. The baby had tiny feet. John jumped a five-foot fence
FOR prep. - a function word to indicate purpose
The gift is for Mary. This oil is for the furniture.
Entrance to the office was forbidden.
FORCE n., v., FORCEFULLY adj. - to expend energy
John tried to force the door open because he forgot the key. Mary spoke forcefully in favor of her project.
FOREIGN adj., FOREIGNER n. - native of another land
John could speak two foreign languages. The tour group included one foreigner.
FOREST n., v. - a dense growth of trees.
We went to the forest to gather mushrooms.
Do not forget your wife's birthday! I know you can be forgetful.
Mary did not forgive John for having forgotten her birthday.
FORM n., v. - to mold or make; a shape
The handle of the cup had a curved form. The cups were formed in a plaster mold.
FORMER adj. - previous
The former president also attended the party.
FORTY n., FORTIETH adj. - the number 40
John has been married forty years. Sunday is his fortieth anniversary.
FORWARD v. - to send ahead
John forwarded me the letter he received.
FOUR n., FOURTH adj. - the number 4
A square has four corners. This is the fourth time that I hear a bell.
FRAME n., v. - a border for an object.
The picture had a gold frame. John framed the photograph.
FREE v., FREEDOM n. - without restraint; without cost
Mary enjoyed the freedom of her vacation. She loved to be free of obligations.
FREEZE v. (FREEZE, FROZE, FROZEN), FREEZER n. - to become solid from cold temperature; to stop
The plants froze last night from the cold weather. All the plants were frozen.
FRESH adj., FRESHLY adv., FRESHNESS n. - having its original qualities; new
I got some fresh bread from Mrs. Smith. The bread was freshly made.
FRIDAY n. - the sixth day of the week
We always eat fish on Friday.
FRIEND n., v. FRIENDLY adj., FRIENDLINESS n. - a close amicable relationship
John went with his friends. Mrs. Smith is not very friendly.
FRIGHTEN v. - to make afraid (see FEAR)
The thunder of the storm frightened me.
FROM prep. - a starting point of a physical movement or a starting point in measuring
Mary went from the kitchen to the bedroom. Where are you from?
FRONT adj., n. v.- the principal surface of an object
The front of the house had a beautiful garden.
FROST n., v., FROSTY adj. - a covering of small ice crystals on a cold surface
John prepared me a frosty drink. The grass was covered with frost during the night.
FRUIT n., v. FRUITY adj., FRUITINESS n. - the reproductive body of a plant
John bought a basket of fruit. What fruit do you prefer, apple or orange?
FRY n., v. - to cook in hot oil
Fried food can make you fat. I like French fries.
FUEL n. v. - a combustible substance; to stimulate
Petroleum is a major industrial fuel. Lower taxes fueled the economy.
FUN n., FUNNY adj. - something that provides amusement or enjoyment
Let's go have some fun. What she said was not funny.
FURNISH v., FURNITURE n. - useful or desirable equipment; to provide something
Mary furnished the living room with modern furniture.
FURROW n., v. - a trench in the earth made by a plow; a groove
She was very old and had a furrowed brow. We need to make some furrows to plant corn.
FUTURE n. - a time that is to come; what is going to happen
Without an education your future cannot be prosperous.
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GAIN n., v. - to acquire or get possession; to advance
Mary gained weight last month. The troops gained enemy territory.
GALLON n. - an American unit of measure equal to 3.785 liters.
My car gives me 24 miles per gallon. I bought a gallon of milk.
GAME n., v. - an activity for amusement; any animal hunted for sport
I went to a baseball game yesterday. I don't like card games.
GARDEN n., v. - a plot of ground where herbs, fruits, flowers, or vegetables are cultivated; to tend a garden
I have tomatoes in my garden. Mary loves gardening.
GAS n., v. - a fluid that has neither independent shape nor volume but tends to expand indefinitely; a combustible fluid
Nitrogen is the most common gas in our atmosphere. I need to put gas in the car.
GATE n., v. - a doorway or entrance
Close the gate so that the dog will not get out of the yard.
GATHER v., GATHERING n. - to assemble; an assembly of people
I want to gather some flowers from the garden. John is going to a gathering with his coworkers.
GEAR n., v. - a mechanism that performs a specific function; a wheel with teeth
Put the car in gear. Don't forget your camping gear.
GENERAL adj., n., GENERALLY adv. - applicable to every member of a class; a high ranking military officer
Generally, all dogs bark. I saw a picture of General McArthur.
GET v. (GET, GOT, GOT or GOTTEN) - to obtain
I need to get some food. She got what she deserved.
GIRL n. - a female child; a young woman
The family has two girls and one boy. The girl next door has a red dress.
GIVE v. (GIVE, GAVE, GIVEN), GIFT n. - to put into the possession of another
John gave Mary a gift. Please give me some water.
GLASS n., GLASSY adv. - a transparent or translucent material consisting of a mixture of silicates.
I need my reading glasses. I also need a glass of water. Don't break the glass windows.
GLOBE n., GLOBAL adj. - a spherical or rounded object; the world
Our school has a globe of the Earth. Have you heard about global warming.
GO v. (GO, WENT, GONE) - to move out of or away from a place
I want to go home. Mary already went home; she is gone.
GOAL n. - a final destination
My goal is to be healthy, wealthy and wise. What is your goal?
GOD n., GODLY adj. - a being or object believed to have more than natural attributes and powers and to require human worship
The ancient Egyptians worshiped many gods.
GOLD n. GOLDEN adj. - a yellow precious metal
Mary wears a gold ring on her left hand.
GOOD adj. (GOOD, BETTER, BEST) - of a favorable characteristic
The apples were good, but the oranges were better. Japanese women make the best wives.
GOOD-BYE adj., n. - a concluding remark or gesture at parting
Mary said good-bye when she left. I gave her a good-bye kiss.
GOVERN v., GOVERNOR n., GOVERNMENT n., GOVERNMENTAL adj., GOVERNMENTALLY adv. - to control, direct, or strongly influence the actions and conduct
The U.S. is governed by the people. The government is a democracy.
GRACE n., GRACEFUL adj., GRACEFULLY adv. - a state of sanctification; pleasing or attractive in line, proportion, or movement
She danced very gracefully.
GRAIN n., GRAINY adj. - a small hard particle or crystal; the seeds of various cereal grasses
A grain of wheat is very small.
GRAM n. - a metric unit of weight
One pound is equivalent to 453 grams.
GRANT n., v. - to give or transfer formally
John got a grant to study global warming. Mary granted me access to the property.
GRAPE n. - a fruit of a vine.
These red grapes are used for making wine.
GRASS n., GRASSY adj. - any of a large family of monocotyledonous mostly herbaceous plants
John has to cut the grass in his yard every Saturday.
GRAVE adj., n., GRAVELY adv. - severe, serious; a tomb
His father's grave is in the old cemetery. The father had been gravely sick.
GRAY adj., GRAYNESS n. - a color between black and white
John's father has gray hair.
GREAT adj., adv., GREATNESS n. - large in size; remarkable in magnitude
Edgar Allan Poe was a great writer. Such greatness is not easy to achieve.
GREEN adj. - a color; not ripened or matured
The trees were covered with green leaves in the springtime.
GRIND v. (GRIND, GROUND, GROUND) - to reduce to powder or small fragments
I was going to grind some coffee, but Mary already ground some.
GROUND n., v. - the surface of the earth; to justify or provide a reason
John made a hole in the ground to plant a tree.
GROUP n., v. - a number of things or people having some unifying relationship
A group of tourists visited the park.
GROW v. (GROW, GREW, GROWN), GROWTH n. - to increase in size
Mary's children are growing very fast.
GUARANTEE n., v. - an assurance
This television is guaranteed to work properly for five years.
GUARD n., v. - to protect; keep from harm
The soldiers guarded the fort. There were three guards at the entrance.
GUIDE n., v. - to provide direction
We went on a guided tour of the museum. Our guide could speak Spanish.
GUILT n., GUILTY adj. - a feeling of culpability for offenses
The children felt guilty after having behaved so badly.
GUN n., v. - a pistol or rifle; a device that throws a projectile
All the soldiers had guns.
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HAIR n., HAIRY adj. - the pigmented filaments that form the characteristic coat of a mammal
Mrs. Smith has white hair. John has a hairy chest.
HALF adj., n. (plural HALVES)- two equal parts; HALVE v. - to divide in two equal parts;
John ate half of the cake. We need to halve the cost of our purchases.
HALT n., v. - to stop
Halt! Who goes there? The project halted for lack of funds
HAM n. - the thigh of a pig; v. - to act with exaggerated speech or gestures
We had baked ham for supper.
HAND n., v. - the terminal part of the vertebrate forelimb; a deal of cards
Each hand has five fingers. Would you like to play a hand of poker?
HANG v. (HANG, HUNG, HUNG) also a regular verb - to suspend without support from below
Horse thieves were often hanged in the past.
HAPPEN v. - to occur
Mistakes will happen.
HAPPY adj., HAPPINESS n. - joyful; enjoyment
John and Mary are very happy together.
HARD adj. (HARD, HARDER, HARDEST) - difficult; solid
I don't like to sleep on the hard floor. The chemistry test was harder than I expected.
HARM v., HARMFUL adj. - to injure or cause damage
This little dog cannot harm you. Smoking is a harmful habit.
HARMONY n. - a pleasing or congruent arrangement; a combination of simultaneous musical notes
Mrs. Smith lives in harmony with her neighbors.
HAT n. - a covering for the head
John was wearing a black hat.
HATE n., v. - intense hostility and aversion usually deriving from fear or anger
John hates to work hard.
HAVE aux., v. (HAVE, HAD, HAD) - auxiliary verb; to hold or maintain
I had a dollar, but now I have a candy bar.
HE pron. (HE, HIS, HIM, HIMSELF) - third person masculine pronoun
He works on Sunday. I gave him my address. He talked about himself.
HEAD n., v. - the part of the body that has the brain; to go, to lead
John was headed toward his office. The dog had a big head.
HEADQUARTERS n. - main office
The headquarters of John's company is in New York.
HEAL v. - to restore to original purity or integrity
The dog healed from its injury.
HEALTH n., HEALTHY adj. - the condition of being sound in body, mind, or spirit; not sick
Mary is very healthy. He is in good health.
HEAR v. (HEAR, HEARD, HEARD) - to perceive by the ear
I hear loud music.
HEART n. - the organ of the body that pumps blood
My heart was beating with excitement.
HEAT n., v.,; HOT adj. - to make warm
Please, heat the soup. I like hot soup.
HEAVEN n., HEAVENLY adj. - a place or condition of utmost happiness
Isn't this cake heavenly? I feel that I am in heaven.
HEAVY adj., HEAVILY adv. - having a great weight
This bag is too heavy. Mary depends heavily on John's help.
HELICOPTER n. - an airplane with a propeller on top
We flew by helicopter from New York to New Jersey.
HELL n. - a place or state of misery, torment and unhappiness
Some people believe that there is a devil in hell.
HELLO n. - a greeting
I said "hello" to Mary.
HELP n., v. - to give assistance or support
The child needs help with her homework. Mary is helping the child.
HER adj., pron., HERS pron. - possessive and objective form of SHE
Give her the book. Her book is heavy. This book is hers.
HERB n. - a medicinal or savory plant
John grows several herbs in his garden.
HERE adv. - at this place
John is here.
HIDE v. (HIDE, HID, HIDDEN) - to conceal
Hide your money when you travel. It is better if you keep it hidden.
HIGH adj., HIGHLY adv. - having large extension upward
A high wall separates the properties. John thinks highly of Mary.
HIJACK v. - take by force
An airplane was hijacked last year.
HILL n., HILLY adj. - a usually rounded natural elevation of land lower than a mountain
Jack and Jill went up the hill. It was hilly terrain.
HIM pron. - objective case of HE
She gave him a book.
HIS adj., pron. - possessive case of HE
This is his book.
HISTORY n., HISTORICAL adj. - a chronological record of significant events
The history of Europe describes many historical events.
HIT v. (HIT, HIT, HIT) - to contact forcefully
The ball hit the window.
HOLD v (HOLD, HELD, HELD) - to have possession or ownership; to restrain
John held the glass in his right hand. What are you holding?
HOLE n. - an opening; a deep space
The dog was digging a hole in the ground.
HOLIDAY n. - vacation; a period of relaxation
The 4th of July is a national holiday in the United States.
HOLLOW adj., n., v. - an unfilled space
A bird has a nest in the hollow tree.
HOLY adj., HOLYNESS n. - having a divine quality
Christians consider the Bible a holy book.
HOME n., v. - one's place of residence
John goes directly home after work.
HONEST adj., HONESTLY adv., HONESTY n. - free from fraud or deception
John is a very honest person.
HONOR n., v., HONORARY adj. - a symbol of distinction or superior standing
His uncle was buried with full military honors.
HOOK n., v. - a curved or bent device for catching, holding, or pulling
I bought several fish hooks. I would like to hook some fish.
HOPE n., v. - to expect with confidence
I hope that we can be friends.
HORRIBLE adj. - extremely unpleasant or disagreeable
John had a horrible dream.
HORSE n. - a large solid-hoofed herbivorous mammal (Equus caballus)
Mary knows how to ride horses.
HOSPITAL n. - an institution where the sick or injured are given medical or surgical care
The victims of the car crash were taken to the hospital.
HOSTAGE n. - a prisoner held for a price
The bank robbers took four hostages.
HOSTILE adj. - marked by malevolence
There was a hostile environment in John's old workplace.
HOT adj. - very warm (see HEAT)
The soup was hot.
HOTEL n. - an establishment that provides lodging to the public
Mary stayed in a hotel when she visited New York
HOUR n. - 60 minutes; a customary or particular time
We had to wait for one hour at the airport.
HOUSE n., v. - a building that serves as living quarters for a family
John's house is white. The jail housed 200 prisoners.
HOW adv. - for what reason; in what manner or way
How did he die? We don't know how he died.
HOWEVER adv., conj. - in whatever manner or way
We will help however we can.
HUG n., v. - to press tightly with the arms
Mary hugged the child.
HUGE adj. - very big
John caught a huge fish.
HUMAN adj., n. - a bipedal primate mammal (Homo sapiens); characteristics of men or women, in general
Humans started farming and domesticating animals about 10,000 years ago.
HUMOR n., v., HUMOROUS adj. - the quality of being amusing or comic
John always has good humor. I heard some humorous stories.
HUNDRED n., HUNDREDTH adj. - the number 100
Ten times ten equals one hundred.
HUNGER n., v., HUNGRY adj. - a craving or urgent need for food or a specific nutrient
John was hungry because he did not eat breakfast. He did not feel hunger after he ate.
HUNT n., v. - to pursue with intent to capture or kill
The police were hunting for the fugitives.
HURRY n.,v. - to move or act with greater speed
John hurried to go to work. He was in a hurry.
HURT v. (HURT, HURT, HURT) - to inflict with physical pain or material harm
John hurt himself when he fell.
HUSBAND n. - a male partner in a marriage; v., HUSBANDRY n. - to manage prudently and economically
Is John Mary's husband? Yes. John is Mary's husband.
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I pron. - First person nominative pronoun. Compare to ME, MINE, MY
I love you.
ICE n., v. - frozen water, to put in ice
My drink had some ice cubes.
IDEA n., IDEAL adj. - a formulated thought or opinion, conforming to a standard of perfection
Edison had a great idea. She had an ideal weight.
IDENTIFICATION n., IDENTIFY v. - to establish the identity of
We were able to identify the problem. The identification took a long time.
IF conj. - in the event that
We will go if we can get a car. If we go, Mary will stay home.
ILL adj., ILLNESS n. - not in good health, not normal
John was ill, but his illness did not last long.
ILLEGAL adj. - against the law, not legal
It is illegal to drink and drive.
IMAGINE v., IMAGINATION n. - to form a mental image
I cannot imagine what Mary will do tomorrow.
IMMEDIATE adj., IMMEDIATELY adv. - without interval of time
Brush your teeth immediately after you finish eating.
IMPORT v. - to bring from a foreign or external source
The shirts were imported from China.
IMPORTANCE n., IMPORTANT adj. - having great worth or significance
John lost some important papers. They were of great importance for his business.
IMPROVE v., IMPROVEMENT n. - to enhance in value or quality, make better
The new diet improved John's health. There was a great improvement.
IMPULSE n., IMPULSIVE adj. - a force that produces sudden motion
John felt a great impulse to buy a new car. The decision was impulsive.
IN prep. - inside
John was in the office.
INCH n., v. - a unit of measure equal to 2.54 centimeters; to move in small increments
Her waist measured 32 inches. A worm was slowly inching forward.
INCIDENT n., INCIDENTAL adj. - an action or situation that is separate from the normal experience
There was a serious incident in Iraq.
INCLUDE v., INCLUSION n. - to take in as part of a whole
We included the children in our list.
INCREASE n., v. - to make greater, augment
Our sales increased 4 percent last month. That was a large increase.
INDEPENDENT adj., INDEPENDENTLY adv. - free, not controlled by others
Mrs. Smith lived independently until she got sick. She as independent before.
INDIVIDUAL adj., n., INDIVIDUALLY adv. - existing as a distinct entity; separate
The candies were individually wrapped. Each individual received a gift.
INDUSTRIAL adj., INDUSTRY n. - a branch of business or manufacture; INDUSTRIOUS adj. - persistently active
John worked in the computer industry for 10 years. Ants are very industrious insects.
INFECT v., INFECTION n. - to contaminate with a virus or bacteria
The child had an ear infection.
INFLATE v., INFLATION n. - to expand and increase in volume
We had to inflate the tire of the car during our trip. Economic inflation increases prices for everybody.
INFLUENCE n., v., INFLUENTIAL adj. - being able to affect something
The new evidence influenced the result.
INFORM v., INFORMATION n. - to communicate knowledge
John informed me of his decision. The information was not very precise.
INJECT v., INJECTION n. - to force a fluid into; to introduce an element or factor into some situation or subject
John injected his comments into the conversation. The doctor gave me a vitamin injection.
INJURE v., INJURY n. - to damage or hurt
The runner was injured when he fell. It was a serious injury.
INK n., v. - a colored fluid for writing and printing
John inked the printing plates. He used red ink.
INNOCENT adj. - faultless; free from guilt or sin
The man who was arrested was innocent.
INSANE adj., INSANITY n. - mentally sick or disordered
The killer was insane.
INSECT n. - any small invertebrate animal with a body segmented into a head, thorax, and abdomen with only three pairs of legs.
The insects can bite you when you sleep in the forest.
INSPECT v., INSPECTION n. - to view closely in critical appraisal
Our house was inspected for termites. The inspection cost $200 dollars.
INSTEAD adv. - in place of; as a substitute or equivalent
He was going to write but called instead
INSTITUTE v., INSTITUTION n. - to establish in a position or office; a significant practice, relationship, or organization
He would like to institute a new procedure. The institution of marriage was established long ago.
INSTRUMENT n. - a tool; a device used to produce music
The carpenter put his instruments in a toolbox. Her favorite instrument was the piano.
INSULT n., v. - to treat with insolence, indignity, or contempt
John was insulted by the bad treatment that he received. Pollution is an insult to the environment.
INSURE v., INSURANCE n. - to take necessary measures and precautions; a contract to indemnify or guarantee against loss
John insured his house against flooding. The insurance was expensive.
INTELLECT n., INTELLECTUAL adj. - the capacity for rational or intelligent thought
Einstein had great intellectual power. His intellect was superb.
INTELLIGENCE n., INTELLIGENT adj. - having a high or degree of mental capacity
John is very intelligent. His intelligence can be compared with Einstein.
INTENSE adj., INTENSELY adv., INTENSITY n. - a characteristic in extreme degree; exhibiting strong feeling
The sky had an intense red color at sunset..
INTEREST n., v. - to engage the attention; a charge for borrowed money
Mary had no interest in music. My bank pays five percent interest on savings accounts.
INTERFERE v., INTERFERENCE n. - to interpose in a way that hinders or impedes
We should not interfere in their business.
INTERNATIONAL adj., INTERNATIONALLY adv. - relating to, or affecting two or more nations
There is a huge international trade between the U.S. and China.
INTO prep. - a function word to indicate entry, introduction, insertion, superposition, or inclusion
He went into the house.
INVADE v., INVASION n. - to enter for conquest or plunder
The rats invaded the house. The invasion lasted three days.
INVENT v., INVENTION n. - to devise by thinking; to produce something original through the use of the imagination
Edison invented the light bulb. This invention changed our way of life.
INVEST v., INVESTMENT n. - to use resources for future benefits or advantages
John invested his money in the stock market. His investments have been successful.
INVESTIGATE v., INVESTIGATION n. - to make a systematic examination
The FBI investigated the crime. The investigation lasted three months.
INVITE v., INVITATION n. - to request the presence or participation of
John invited Mary to dinner. The invitation was for Saturday.
INVOLVE v., INVOLVEMENT n. - to engage as a participant
John was involved in the new project. His involvement was unexpected.
IRON n. - a heavy malleable ductile magnetic silver-white metallic element that readily rusts in moist air; an instrument that is heated to remove wrinkles from clothing.
Mary ironed John's shirt. Iron is an essential metal for the automotive industry.
IRRITATE v., IRRITATION n. - to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure; to produce soreness, roughness, or inflammation of a bodily part
John's jokes always irritate Mary. John had a skin irritation after walking in the forest.
IS v. - third person singular of verb BE
He is very happy. Mary is a teacher.
ISLAND - a tract of land surrounded by water; an isolated area
Cuba is a big island.
ISSUE n., v. - to go, come, or flow out
The president issued a statement at noon. The newspaper publishes the first issue at 6 AM.
IT pron. - third person singular nominative and objective pronoun. ITS - third person possessive pronoun.
It is here. I gave it to John. Its quality is outstanding.
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JACKET n. - a coat
He was wearing a leather jacket.
JAIL n., v. - a place to hold criminals
He was jailed for three days. The jail was very cold.
JANUARY n. - the first month of the year.
Mary's uncle has birthday in January.
JELL v. - to thicken a liquid; JELLY n. - a thick viscous liquid
I like strawberry jelly.
JEWEL n., v. - a precious stone; covered with precious stones
The jewel around her neck was an emerald. The king had a jewelled crown.
JOB n., v. - a piece of work
John was looking for a new job.
JOIN v. - to put together; JOINT n., JUNCTION n. - a point of contact
Mary will join us for supper. The knee joint joins the thigh with the leg.
JOKE n., v. - words or actions that provoke laughter
He joked about her nose. She did not like the joke.
JOY n., JOLLY adj., JOYFUL adj., JOYFULLY adv. - the feeling of happiness (see ENJOY)
She spoke joyfully. Mary got great joy from cooking.
JUDGE n., v., JUDGEMENT n. - to evaluate and give an opinion; a person who gives legal opinions
Mary was a judge at the dog show. Mary judged the dogs at the show.
JUICE n., v. - the fluid from vegetable or animal tissues; to make juice
Mary juiced the oranges. We drank orange juice.
JULY n. - the seventh month of the year
I went on vacation last July.
JUMP n., v. - a sudden upward move into the air
The dog jumped over the fence. John was a long-jump champion.
JUNE n. - the sixth month of the year.
There are many weddings in June.
JURY n. - a group of people who judge; JUROR n. - a member of a jury
There were 12 jurors. The jury consisted of 12 people.
JUST adj., adv., JUSTLY adv. - proper; very recently
The decision was just. He just left five minutes ago.
JUSTICE n. - the quality of being just, impartial, or fair
The people asked for justice after the horrible crime.
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KEEP v. (KEEP, KEPT, KEPT) - to preserve or retain
John kept the money in the bank. Mary keeps her cat in the house.
KEY n. - an instrument for opening a door or a box; an important component
John lost the key to his house. The key ingredient of her cake is chocolate.
KICK n., v. - to hit with the foot
John kicked the ball. It was a strong kick.
KILL v. - to destroy or stop life
The farmer killed a chicken for our supper.
KIND adj., n. - a category or variety; a helpful gesture
Mary was kind to animals. John does not like this kind of fruit.
KISS n., v. - to touch with the lips
John kissed Mary. It was a long kiss.
KIT n. - a package of related material
The kit included all the tools needed.
KNEE n., KNEEL v. - a joint in the middle part of the leg; to rest on the knees
Mary kneeled in church. Her knees were covered with dust.
KNIFE n. (plural: KNIVES) - an instrument with a sharp edge for cutting
Mary cut the bread with a knife.
KNOCK n., v. - to strike with a sharp blow
We knocked on the door three times. The boxer was knocked out in the first round.
KNOT n., v. - to intertwine a string; a lump
John had difficulty making a knot in his tie.
KNOW v. (KNOW, KNEW, KNOWN), KNOWLEDGE n. - to understand
The young boy already knew how to multiply, but he did not know how to divide
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LABOR n., v. - expenditure of physical or mental effort; work
They labored hard to finish their assignment. Domestic labor can be expensive.
LABORATORY n. - a workplace for studying scientific experiments
Our chemistry laboratory is very small.
LACK n., v. - to be deficient or missing
His theory lacks support. The lack of support prevents publication.
LAKE n. - a large inland body of standing water
Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes.
LAMB n. - a young sheep
Little Bo-Peep lost her sheep but took care of the lambs.
LAND n., v. - the solid part of the surface of the earth; to set or put on shore from a ship
The eagle has landed. The land was covered with forest.
LANGUAGE n. - the words, their pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by a community
How many languages do you speak?
LARGE adj., LARGER, LARGEST; LARGELY adv. - big; having more than usual power, capacity, or scope
Mary put the hat in a large box.
LAST adj. - the final item of a series. LAST v. - durable; to continue in existence or action for a long time
John was the last of five children. The food should last you for a week.
LATE adj. - coming or remaining after the due, usual, or proper time
John was late for work on Monday.
LAUGH n., v. - to find amusement or pleasure in something
John laughed at the joke.
LAW n. - a rule of conduct or action
Federal laws apply to all the states.
LAY v. (LAY, LAID, LAID) - to put or set down
The hen laid an egg.
LEAD n., v. (LEAD, LED, LED), LEADER n. - to guide on a way by going in advance
This path leads to his home. John lost his lead and ended in second place.
LEAF n. (plural LEAVES), v. - a flattened lateral outgrowth from a plant stem; a page of a book
This tree has red leaves.
LEAK n.,v. - to enter or escape through an opening
The water tank had a leak. The tank was leaking.
LEAN adj. - skinny, containing little or no fat; LEAN v. - to incline, deviate, or bend from a vertical position
The meat is very lean. The broom was leaning against the wall.
LEARN v. - to gain knowledge or understanding
We learned English grammar in school today.
LEAVE v. (LEAVE, LEFT, LEFT) - to abandon; to depart
John left his book at school. We will leave the city tomorrow.
LEFT adj. - the side of the body in which the heart is generally located; LEFT v. - past tense of LEAVE
She held the cup with her left hand.
LEG n. - a limb of an animal used especially for supporting the body and for walking
Mary tried to stand on one leg. My legs hurt.
LEGAL adj., LEGALLY adv. - conforming to or permitted by law; related to the law
Mary had some legal problems two years ago. Attorneys provide legal advice.
LEMON n. - an acid yellow fruit; a tree that produces lemons
Lemon trees grow in tropical countries.
LEMONADE n. - a drink made from lemons and sugar
We drank some lemonade with our lunch.
LEND v. (LEND, LENT, LENT) - to give for temporary use on condition that the same or its equivalent be returned
John lent me his coat.
LESS adj. - of lower rank, degree, or importance; LESSEN v. - to shrink in size, number, or degree
Mary ate less food than John.
LET v. (LET, LET, LET) - to give opportunity to or fail to prevent; to rent
She let me take two cookies. Let me go.
LETTER n. - a symbol representing a unit of an alphabet; a written message
The first letter of the alphabet is A. Mary sent a letter to her sister.
LETTUCE n. - a common garden vegetable whose succulent leaves are used in salads.
I ate a sandwich with lettuce and tomato.
LEVEL n., v. - horizontal condition; an instrument establishing a horizontal line
The floor in the room was not level.
LIBRARY n. - a room or building where books are kept
John goes to the library every Friday.
LIE n., v. (LIE, LIED, LIED) - something that is not true
Mary lied about her age. I don't lie about my age.
LIE v. (LIE, LAY, LAIN) - to rest in a horizontal position
I like to lie on the sand by the ocean.
LIFE n. (plural: LIVES) - the quality that distinguishes a vital and functional being from a dead body
Mozart had a short life.
LIFT n., v. - to raise from a lower to a higher position; an elevator
The mother lifted the child.
LIGHT adj., n., v. (LIGHT, LIT, LIT) - to ignite something; electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum; something of low weight
There was not enough light in the room. The package was very light. Please light the fire.
LIKE adj., prep. - similar to; LIKE v. - to feel attraction or enjoyment.
Mary acts like a little girl. I liked the movie.
LIMIT n., v. - something that bounds, restrains, or confines
His patience had reached his limit. There is a limit to the number of fish that you can catch.
LINE n.,v. - a string or a cord; a narrow elongated mark
I used a nylon line for fishing. He drew a line in the sand.
LINK n., v. - a connecting structure or relationship
A chain is as strong as its weakest link. Scientists found a link between smoking and cancer.
LIP n. - the fleshy folds that surround the mouth
She kissed him on the lips.
LIQUID n. - a fluid
We obtain liquid water when ice melts. She drank a brown liquid.
LIST n., v. - a series of items
Please list the counties in South America. Write the list on one page.
LISTEN v. - to hear or pay attention
Listen to the sound of the crickets. You are not listening.
LITER n. - a liquid measure of 1000 cubic centimeters.
Sodas are sold in two-liter bottles.
LITTLE adj., adv. - not big; small in size or extent
I saw a little mouse. They were little known at the time.
LIVE adj., v. - to be alive; to reside
We live in that house. I have a bucket with live fish.
LIVER n. - an organ in the abdomen that filters the blood
His liver was damaged because he drank too much.
LOAD n., v. - to carry; the quantity that can be carried
We loaded the chairs in the truck. The load was not heavy.
LOAN n., v. - to grant temporary use
He loaned me five dollars. I got a small loan.
LOCAL adj., LOCATION n. - relating to a particular place
These are local residents. Their location is near Washington.
LOCK n., v. - to secure; a device for fastening
I locked the door. Do you have the key for the lock?
LOG n., v. - a tree trunk; a written record of events
Put another log in the fire. We have a log of all the computer activity.
LONG adj., v. - extending for a considerable distance; to desire;
This was a long trip. I long to see the sea.
LOOK n., v. - physical appearance; to watch or observe
We were looking at her. It was a new look in women's fashion.
LOOSE adj. - not rigidly fastened or securely attached
This machine has a loose screw.
LOSE v. (LOSE, LOST, LOST), LOSS n. - to miss from one's possession or from a customary or supposed place
Little Bo Peep lost her sheep. How did she lose them?
LOT n. - a great quantity; a parcel of land
You are in a lot of trouble. He built a house on a lot by the sea.
LOUD adj., LOUDLY adv. - a great intensity or volume of sound
The music was very loud. She played the music loudly.
LOVE n., v. - affection or attraction
I love you very much. No, you only love yourself.
LOW adj. - below the normal level
Mary spoke in a low voice.
LOYAL adj. - faithful
He was a loyal servant.
LUCK n., LUCKY adj. - to come upon something desirable by chance
I wish you good luck with your investments. I am always lucky.
LUNCH n. - meal during the middle of the day.
He always ate lunch at 12 PM.
LUNG n. - an organ of the body used for respiration.
He could run fast because he had good lungs and good legs.
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MACHINE n., v. - an instrument or apparatus that transmits or modifies the application of power, force, or motion; to produce using a machine
The automobile is a very complicated machine.
MAGAZINE n. - a periodical containing articles or stories
I like to look at magazines with pictures.
MAGIC n., MAGICAL adj. - an extraordinary power or influence seemingly from a supernatural source
The money disappeared as if by magic.
MAIL n., v. - something sent or carried in the postal system
I mailed the letter yesterday. He should receive the mail today.
MAIN adj., MAINLY adv. - most important; principal
We drove on the main street of the city. He ate mainly vegetables.
MAJOR adj., MAJORITY n. - greater in number, quantity, or extent;
This celebration is a major event. The majority of the people agree.
MAKE n., v. (MAKE, MADE, MADE) - to create or cause to happen
Mary made a dress. She likes to make dresses.
MALE adj., n. - a man or a boy; masculine
John attended an all-male school.
MAN (plural. MEN) n. -an individual human; especially an adult male human
Do you think that man evolved from apes? Those men are looking at you.
MANUFACTURE v. - to produce from raw materials by hand or by machinery
John's company manufactures computers.
MANNER n. - a way in which a thing is done or happens; a person's outward bearing or way of behaving toward others.
He had good manners.
MANY adj., pron. - a large number.
Many people agreed with her. I have many books.
MAP n., v. - a drawing of an area of land or sea showing physical features.
We studied a map of Europe. The workers mapped the area.
MARCH n., v. - to walk in a military manner
The soldiers marched on the field.
MARK n., v. - a small area on a surface having a different color from its surroundings
He made a mark with a pencil. Mary marked the paper.
MARKET n., v. - a place to conduct business; to sell
This little piggy went to the market. The company markets computers.
MARRY v. - to wed; to join in marriage
They were married in June.
MASS n. - a body of matter with no definite shape
The great mass of the population had little interest in the project.
MATCH n., v. - to be equal or correspond in some essential respect
The color of the curtains and the walls matched.
MATERIAL adj., n. - the matter from which a thing is made
Her dress was made of an expensive material.
MATTER n., v. - a physical substance. To be of importance of significance.
Matter consists of atoms. It does not matter what you wear.
MAY aux., n. - to be able, the 5th month of the year
You may do it. Jane was born in May.
MAYOR n. - The elected head of a city or town.
John was the mayor of Chicago.
ME pron. - First person objective pronoun (see I)
He gave it to me.
MEAL n. - the food eaten on a regular schedule
We had our main meal at 6:00 PM.
MEAN v. - to want or intend to express
John did not mean to offend you.
MEASURE v. - to determine the size or amount of something.
Please measure the size of your pants.
MEAT n. - the flesh of an animal used as food
Did you ever eat buffalo meat?
MECHANIC n. - one who repairs machines; of or relating to manual work
John is an automobile mechanic.
MEDIA n. - plural of MEDIUM, a system for distributing information
The media reported the Pope's visit.
MEDICINE n. - a substance used to cure an ailment or disease
This medicine is very bitter.
MEET v. (MEET, MET, MET) - to come together
Let us meet for lunch. Have you met my friend?
MEMBER n - an individual or thing belonging to a group
Putin is a member of the communist party.
MEMORY n. - something remembered; stored information
Elephants have a good memory. My camera uses a memory card for the pictures.
MENTAL adj. - having to do with the mind.
He has the mental capacity of a child.
MERCY n. - showing kindness
Have mercy on the old people.
MESSAGE n. - a verbal, written, or recorded communication
John left a message on my phone.
METAL n. - a material that is typically hard, shiny and malleable,
What type of metal is used to make a knife?
METER n. - the fundamental unit of length in the metric system
The car was three meters long.
METHOD n. - a procedure for doing something
Mary has a special method for baking a cake.
MIDDLE adj., n. - the central point of something
We were in the middle of the crowd.
MIGHT aux., n. - past of MAY; great power or strength
He might be late. There was a great display of military might.
MILE n. - a unit of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet or approximately 1.609 kilometers
The car went at 30 miles per hour.
MILITARY adj., n. - relating to soldiers or armed forces
The military action killed many people. He works for the military.
MILK n., v. - the fluid secreted by female mammals for the nourishment of their young; to draw milk from an animal.
I poured milk on my cereal. Jane milked the cow.
MILLION n. - the number 1,000,000
John has two million dollars.
MIND n., v. - a person's intellect; to pay attention
Newton had a keen mind. Please mind your manners.
MINE n., pron., v. - to dig into the ground for ore or metal; First person possessive pronoun. (see I)
We visited a gold mine. This book is mine.
MINISTER n., v. - a a member of the clergy or a head of government; to attend to someone's needs.
John was a minister of the church. Sara Barton ministered to the wounded.
MINOR n. - small or underage
The crash caused minor damage. You are considered a minor before the age of eighteen.
MINUTE adj., n. - very small; a time unit consisting of 60 seconds
He had a minute cut in his finger. Please wait a minute.
MISS n., v. - title for an unmarried woman; to fail
Miss Jones missed the train.
MIST n., v. - a fine cloud of droplets; to cover with mist
The morning mist disappeared when the sun came out.
MISTAKE v. (MISTAKE, MISTOOK, MISTAKEN), n. - to make an error.
I made a mistake on the test. I was mistaken.
MIX n., v. - to combine several things or substances; a combination of things
Mix water and flour to make bread.
MOB n., v. - a large crowd of disorderly people
There was a large mob at the concert.
MODEL n., v. - an example or prototype; to show or display
He always drives the newest car models. She was modeling a dress.
MODERATE adj., v. - an average amount; to make less extreme
He has always had moderate views.
MODERN adj. - relating to the present time; new
Our modern life is far removed from agriculture.
MONDAY n. - a day of the week.
I start working on Monday.
MONEY n. - coins or notes used for exchange
I paid a lot of money for this car.
MONTH n. - a period of time into which a year is divided
There are twelve months in a year.
MOON n. - a satellite of a planet
Mars has two moons and the Earth only has one.
MORAL adj., n. - of good behavior; a lesson
Mary was a moral person. The moral of the story was confusing.
MORNING n. - the first part of the day.
I wake up at 8 o'clock in the morning.
MOTHER n. - a female parent
Mothers usually love their children.
MOTION n., v. - a movement; to signal
The motion made me sick. He motioned me to approach.
MOTOR n. - a machine that produces motion or action
My car has a gasoline motor.
MOUNTAIN n. - an elevated portion of a landscape
Japan has many mountains.
MOUTH n. - an opening for eating; the entrance to a structure
He stood with his mouth open.
MOVE n., v. - to change place; a change of position
He moved to the other side. He was moving fast.
MOVIE n. - a display of moving images.
Jane saw a very scary movie.
MUCH adj. - great in quantity
I did not get much sleep.
MORE adj. - a greater of additional amount
I need to get more sleep.
MOST adj. - the greatest amount or degree
The most sleep I could get was three hours.
MURDER n., v. - willful killing
The shop keeper was murdered yesterday.
MUSCLE n. - body tissue that can contract; physical power or strength
He had a lot of muscle.
MUSIC n. - harmonious sound
What is your favorite kind of music?
MUST aux. - to require or demand
You must wear shoes in the store.
MY adj. - First person possessive adjective. (see I)
This is my book.
MYSTERY n. - a puzzle; something difficult to understand
Agatha Christie wrote many mystery stories.
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  - N -  

NAIL n., v. - the hard protective part at the end of each finger; a thin pointed and headed fastener designed to be pounded in
Mary has very long nails. John fixed the broken table with two nails.
NAME n., v. - a distinctive designation of a person or thing
What is the name of your friend? His name is John.
NARROW adj. - a small width; to reduce a distance
The small bed is too narrow for me. Go faster to narrow the distance between the cars.
NATION n., NATIONAL adj. - a territorial division with independent status
The United States is a great nation. Do you know the national anthem?
NATIVE adj., n. - belonging to a particular place by birth; aboriginal
John is a native speaker of English.
NATURE n., NATURAL adj. - the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing
Mary only buys natural foods. Nature produces the best products.
NAVY n., NAVAL adj. - military branch specializing in water warfare
The navy has many types of ships. There is a submarine at the naval museum.
NEAR adj., prep., NEARLY adv. - close to; within a short distance
Mrs. Smith lives near John's house. The food was not nearly as good as we expected.
NECESSARY adj., NECESSITY n. - required; unavoidable (see NEED)
It is necessary to check the car before the trip.
NECK n. - the part that connects the head with the body
Giraffes have long necks.
NEED v. - required; unavoidable
I need to check the car.
NEGATIVE adj. - denial, prohibition, or refusal
John has a negative attitude.
NEIGHBOR n., NEIGHBORLY adj. - someone living close by; friendly
Mrs. Smith is Mary's neighbor.
NEITHER conj. - not either; also not
The color gray is neither black nor white.
NERVE n. - the fibers that transmit impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord
The optic nerve carries information from the eye to the brain.
NEST n., v. - a structure made by a bird for laying eggs
The bird made a nest in the tree. Birds like to nest in the trees.
NEUTRAL adj. - impartial; not having strongly marked characteristics or features
Switzerland was a neutral country during the war.
NEVER adv. - at no time in the past or future; not ever
She will never agree to these conditions.
NEW adj. - not existing before
Mary has a new dress.
NEWS n. - stories of recent interest
I heard on the news that there was another murder.
NEXT adj. - following; after the current one
My mom is coming next week.
NICE adj. - pleasant; agreeable; satisfactory
She is a nice girl.
NIGHT n. - the time of day when the sun does not shine.
I heard an owl last night.
NINE n. - the number 9
I can see nine chairs.
NINETY n. - the number 90
My uncle is ninety years old.
NINTH adj. - constituting number nine in a sequence; 9th.
September is the ninth month of the year.
NO adj. - not any
I got no response from John.
NOTHING n. - not anything; no single thing
Jane says that she has nothing to wear.
NOWHERE n. - not in or to any place
there was nowhere for her to sit.
NOISE n. - any sound that is undesired or interferes with one's hearing of something.
There was a lot of noise in the room.
NOMINATE v. - to propose a candidate for election to office.
John was nominated for president.
NOON n. - 12 o'clock at midday.
We met at noon for lunch.
NORMAL adj. - conforming to a type, standard, or regular pattern.
We had a normal breakfast.
NORTH adj., n. - in the direction of the north terrestrial pole
He went north. The north wind was very cold.
NOSE n. - the part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Pinocchio had a very long nose.
NOT adv. - a function word to make negative a group of words.
He did not go home.
NOTE n., v. - to notice or observe; to record or preserve in writing.
He took some notes in class. I noted that he was asleep.
NOTICE n., v. - an observation; a warning.
I noticed that he did not have socks. We received a notice in the mail.
NOVEMBER n. - the eleventh month of the year.
My mother has a birthday in November.
NOW adv. - at the present time.
He bought too many things and now he has no money.
NUCLEAR adj. - relating to a nucleus, particularly of an atom.
A nuclear bomb destroyed Hiroshima.
NUMBER n., v. - a numerical quantity; to assign a number to something.
He numbered every box in the room. Each had a different number.
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  - O -  

OBEY v. - to follow the commands or guidance.
Mary obeyed all the rules.
OBJECT n., v. - something material that may be perceived by the senses; to oppose something firmly
I see an object in front of the car. John objected to the new rules.
OBSERVE v. - to inspect or take note; to celebrate solemnly.
He observed her movements carefully. Christians observe Christmas as a holiday.
O'CLOCK - a measure of time
It is five O'Clock and all is well.
OCCUPY v. - to engage the attention; to take up a place
The seat was occupied by a woman. He is always occupied with work.
OCEAN n. - the sea; a large body of water
The Atlantic Ocean separates America from Europe.
OCTOBER n. - The 10th month of the year.
Columbus discovered America on the 12th of October.
ODD adj. - unusual; a number not divisible by two
Three is an odd number. Jane's behavior was odd.
OF prep. - belonging to; related to.
A cup of water. The queen of England.
OFF adv. - a state of discontinuance
The light was turned off.
OFFEND v. - to cause difficulty, discomfort, or injury
Mary did not want to offend anybody.
OFFER v. - to present for acceptance or rejection
She offered him some bread.
OFFICE n. - a place of work
I am going to the office in the morning.
OFFICER n. - a person who holds an office of trust, authority, or command
A police officer stopped John.
OFFICIAL adj., n. - an authoritative statement; one who holds or is invested with an office
Yesterday, we got the official results. An official read the court ruling.
OFTEN adv. - frequently
She visits her mother often.
OIL n., v. - a greasy substance; to lubricate
Canola oil is used for cooking. We oiled the wheels.
OLD adj. - of great age
The old man could not walk.
ON prep. - above; to continue
The book is on the table. John turned on the light.
ONCE adv. - one time
I will try any food once.
ONE n., pron. - the number 1; a single person
One plus one equals two. One can never be sure.
ONION n. - a pungent root vegetable.
I like fried onions with my steak.
ONLY adv. - a single occurrence
This is the only book I have.
OPEN adj., v. - without barriers; to make available
The door is open. I opened the door for John.
OPERATE v. - to work; to perform a special procedure
The company operates in California. The doctor operated on the patient.
OPINION n. - a particular view or belief
Mary expressed her opinion about the new table.
OPPORTUNITY n. - a favorable time or conditions
I have the opportunity to go to England.
OPPOSITE adj., n. - contrary
Is white the opposite of black? He went to the opposite side.
OPPRESS v. - to burden physically or mentally
The maid was oppressed by the boss.
OR conj. - Conjunction that provides alternatives.
You can have an apple or an orange, but not both.
ORANGE adj., n. - the color of an orange; a citrus fruit
The sun at sunset looks orange. We ate an orange for breakfast.
ORDER n., v. - a command; to request
I ordered ham and eggs for breakfast.
ORGANIC adj. - relating or derived from living organisms
Jane only eats organic eggs.
ORGANIZE v. - to arrange; place in order
He organized the plates by size.
ORNAMENT n. - a decoration
The Christmas tree ornaments sparkled beautifully.
OTHER adj., n. - something else; additional
He had other toys.
OUNCE n. - a liquid measure equal to 29.57 milliliters. A weight measure equal to 28.35 grams.
There are 128 fluid ounces in one gallon. There are 16 ounces in one pound.
OUR adj. - first person plural possessive adjective
This is our house.
OURS pron. - first person plural possessive pronoun; belongs to us
This house is ours.
OUST v. - to eject or remove by force
They ousted the noisy people from the party.
OUT adv., prep. - away; removed
He went out the door.
OVER adv., prep. - above; done
The car went over the hill. Our troubles are over.
OWE v. - to be indebted
John still owes me some money.
OWN adj., v. - to possess
I have my own car. John owns two cars.
Under Construction
This page is under construction.

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  - P -  

PACKAGE -s, -d, -r, -ing
PAGE -s, -r, -ed, -ing [summon]
PAIN -s, -ed, -ing, ful, -less withdraw from Cowardice
PAINT -s, -er , Painting {on, over, up}
PAN -s, -ned, -ning pan out = succeed
PAPER y -s, -er, -ed,-ing [treatise]
PARADE -s, -d, -ing
PARALLEL -s, -led, ling Horizonal
PARENT -s, -ed,-ing, -ial, -ially
PART -s, -ly, -ing, -ed
PARTNER -s, confederate, associate -ed, -ing
PARTY -ies, -ier, -ied, -ying political -, Celebration
PASS -es, -ed, -ing Passage, {away transience, off = Transfer, on, out = faint, -over, through, under}
PAST -s, the - passport, -time
PASSPORT = pass + port
PASTE y -s,-d, -ing
PATH -s, -ed, -way closed continuous path Circuit
PATIENT -s,-ly, patience Inexcitability, lack of = forbearance, fortitude
PAY -s, paid, -ing, -able not paying Nonpayment
PEACE -s, -ful, -fully make Pacification
PEN -s, -ned, ning Writing -al
PENCIL = hand writing device
PEOPLE -s, -ed, -ing common people Populace
PERFECT -s, -ed, -ing, -ly "Perfection"
PERFORM -s, -ed, -ing, -er "performance"
PERIOD = recurrence [spell]
PERMANENT = lasting
PERMIT -s, -ed, -ing; act of Permission, Exemption, lack of = allow
PERSON -s, -al, ally Repute
PHILOSOPHY -s, -er, ical, ically
PHOTOGRAPH -s, Photography -er, -ed, -ing
PHYSICAL physics
PICK -s,-ed, -ing { off, on, over, through, up, with} [choice]
PICTURE -s, -ed,-ing
PIECE -s, -d, -ing = bit
PIG -s
PILE -s, -r, -d, -ing {up Exaggeration}
PILOT -s, -ed, -ing, - house, -light
PIPE -s, -r, -d, -ing
PITY -ies, -ied, -ing -ful, fully, less, lessness compassion
PLACE Location -s, -r, -d, -ing, -able {in, on, over, together}
PLAN -s, -ed, -ner, -ning
PLANT -s, -er, -ing, -ed
PLATE -s, -d, -ing
PLAY -s, Drama, -er [actor], -ed, -ing
PLEASE -s, -ing -d, -r "Pleasure"
PLENTY = enough, many
PLUNGE -s, -d, -r, -ing
POCKET -s, -ed, -ing -book
POINT -s, -er,-ed [concise],-ing {at, out,
POISON -s, -er, -ing, -ed [bane], -ous [insalubrity]
POLE -s -ar, -d, -ing
POLICE -s, -ed, -ing,- beat, car, force, -man, power, station = enforce
POLICY -ies, -maker
POLITICS -al "politician"
POLLUTE -s, -d, -r, -ing "pollution
POOR Insufficiency -ly, -ness Poverty
PORT -s, -ly, -er, -al, air-, sea-
POSITION -s, -ed, -ere, -ing state; political stand, Principle
POSITIVE -ly Affirmation
POSSESS -es, -ed, -or, -ing "Possession"
POSSIBLE -ly, "Possibility" lack of p. Impossibility
POSTPONE = put off
POTATO -es food, root vegetable
POUR -es, -ed, -ing, -er in, out
POWDER -es, -ed, -ing, -y, Powderiness
POWER -s, -ed, -ing,-ful,-fulness, Strength -fully, -less, -lessness,
PRACTICE -s, -d,-itioner, -ing
PRAISE -s, -d, -r, -ing Approbation overly; - to the skies Flattery
PRAY -s, -ed, -ing, -er, -ers Request -erful, -ly,
PREGNANT = with child, come to term
PREPARE -s, -d, -r, -ing "Preparation" lack of Unpreparedness
PRESENT -s, -ed, -ing, the present, -ly, -able "Presence"
PRESIDENT see Appendix leader, chair
PRESS -es, -ed, -ing, Influence, Compulsion
PRESSURE -s, -d, -ing
PREVENT -s, -ed, -er, -ing "prevention"
PRICE y -s, -d, -ing low price Cheapness
PRIDE -s, -ful, great p. Vanity, [arrogance] lack of- Humility
PRINCIPLE -s, -d Probity
PRINT -s, -er, -ed, Printing, -able
PRISON -s, -er, -ers
PRIVATE -s. -ly, -ness
PRIZE -s, -d
PROBABLE -ly lack of
PROCESS -es, -or, -ed, -ing "procession"
PRODUCE -s, "Product" -r, -d, -ing, "Production"
PROFESS -es, -ed, -or, -ing "profession"
PROFIT -s, -ed, -ing, profitable
PROGRAM -s, -ed, -er, -ing
PROGRESS -s, -ed, -ing, "Progression"
PROJECT -s, -ed, -ing, -or, "projection"
PROMISE -s, -d, -ing,
PROPER -s, -ly
PROPERTY -ies, -ied, owning, holding, -ly
PROPOSE -s, -d, -ing, -r "proposition"
PROTECT -s, -ed, -or, -ing "protection" safekeeping, guard, watch
PROTEST = Speak or act against
PROVE -s, -d, -ing, "Proof" Evidence, lack of, prove false Confutation
PROVIDE -s, -ed, -er, -ing, "Provision"
PRY -ies, -ied, -ing [intrusion] [leverage]
PSYCHOLOGY -ical, ically, -ist
PUBLIC -s, -ly, speaking [elocution], spirit
PUBLISH -es, -ed, -er, -ing, "Publication"
PULL -s, -ed, -er, -ing {in, off, on, over, through = recover, to, up}
traction strong -
PUMP -s, -er, -ed, -ing, Extraction
PUNISH -es, -ed, -ing, -er Punishment
PURCHASE -s, -d, -r, -ing cf buy
PURE -ly "Purity"
PURPLE -ness Color
PURPOSE s Intention, -ful, fully, fulness, less
PUSH -es Propulsion -er, -ed, -ing, -y, iness {from, in, into, off, on,
PUT -s, -ter, ting, {in, Insertion, off [pretext], on airs [affectation], out [dislocation], over, to, up}
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QUALIFY v. - to declare competent or adequate; to characterize
Mary qualified to enter the university. John qualified his trip as exhausting.
QUALITY adj., n. - degree of excellence
The quality of apples was very good.
QUART n. - an American unit of measure (0.945 liters). One quarter of a gallon.
The car had a 20-gallon tank.
QUARTER adj., n., v. - one fourth (1/4); a place to live; to cut in quarters
There are four quarters in one dollar. The cook quartered the chicken.
QUESTION n., v. - an interrogative expression
Let me ask you a question. Why do you question my suggestion?
QUICK adj., QUICKLY adv., QUICKNESS n. - rapid or fast
The dog jumped quickly. It was very quick.
QUIET adj. QUIETLY adv. - without noise; silent
The room was very quiet. I want to spend a quiet evening at home.
QUIT v. - to stop
She quits work at 5 PM. John quit smoking last year.
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  - R -  

RACE y -s, [stream] -r, -d,-ing, ial, raciness
RADIO -s, -ed, -ing cf communication
RAID = strike, hit
RAIL -s, -ed, -ing Ridicule road
RAIN -s, y -ed, -ing fall, storm
RAISE -s, -d, -ing, act of- Elevation [promotion], r- money Borrowing
RARE -er, -est, -ly = Seldom, -ness Rarity "raw"
RASH -es, -ly Rashness
RATE -s, -ing over- [overestimation], under- Underestimation
RAY -s, -ed, -ing [radiation]
REACH -es, -ed, -ing in, out, over, through
REACT -s, -or, -ed, -ing "Reaction," Resistance
READ v. (READ, READ, READ) -s, -er, -ing, [version]
READY -ies, -ily, -iness [preparation], lack of
REAL -ly not - "fiction" "realist," -istic
REASON -s, -ed, Reasoning -falsely [sophistry] [motivation] -able, -ably
RECEIVE -s, -able, -ed, -er, Receiving, "reception," "receipt"
RECESSION economic turndown
RECOGNIZE -s, -d, -r, -ing [detection] [acknowledgement]
RECORD -s, -er, -ed, -ing, -able
RED -ness -er, -est Color
REDUCE decrease, lower
REFLECT -s, -er, -er, -ing, "reflection"
REFUSE -s, -er, -ed, -ing, Refusal = boycott
REGRET -s, -ed, -ing, penance sorry, with sadness
REGULAR -ly "Regularity," Oscillation, Symmetry, lack of
REJECT throw out Rejection
RELATION -s, -al lack of kinship
RELEASE = free, let out
RELIGION -s [teaching] lack of Irreligion
REMAIN -s, -ed, -ing, "Remainder"
REMEMBER -s Memory -ed, -ing
REMOVE -s, -er, -ed, -ing, -al Extraction Deduction Displacement
REPAIR -s, -ed,-in, -er = Restitution, Return, Atonement
REPEAT -s, -ed, -ing, -er "Repetition"
REPORT -s, -er, -ed, -ing Publication
REPRESENT -s,-ed, -ing "Representation"
REQUEST -s, -er, -ed, -ing Command petition
REQUIRE -s, -d, -ing "requirement" = demand, exact
RESCUE -s, -d, -er, -ing
RESEARCH -es, -ed, -er, -ing -able
RESIGN -s, -ed, -ing, -er "Resignation"
RESIST -s, -ed, -ing, -er "Resistance" = oppose
RESOLVE -s, -ed, -ing "Resolution"
RESOURCE -s, Means -ing, -ful, -fully
RESPECT -ed, -ing, -er, -ful, -fulness, -ly, lack of Disrespect
RESPONSE -s, -sible, -ly Answer Sensibility
REST -s, Repose -ed,-ing,-ful,-fulness, -less, lessness {in, on, over} stop, restroom
RESTRAIN -s, -ed, -ing "Restraint" hold back
RESULT -s, -er, -ing "product" = outcome
RETIRE -s, -d, -ing Modesty
RETREAT -s, -ed, -ing Recession house, place
RETURN -s, Reversion -ed, -ing, return like for like Retaliation
REVEAL -s, -ed, -er, -ing "revelation" Disclosure Appearance
REVIEW -s, -ed, -er, -ing
REVOLT -s, -ed, -ing "Revolution"
REWARD -s, -ed, -ing, -able Repute
RICE Food, grain
RICH -es [wealth]; -ness [productiveness]
RIDE n., v. (RIDE, RODE, RIDDEN) -s, -r, rode, ridden -ing Travel
RIGHT -s, -ly, Rightness, Probity, -ful, fully, -ed, -ing, -of-way
RING -s, Resonance -er, -ing, -ed
RIOT mob + situation
RISE n., v. (RISE, ROSE, RISEN) -s, -r, -ing, rose, risen, "resurrection" {up Ascent, with}
RISK -s, -ed, -ing -taker
RIVER -s, bank, -side
ROAD -s, -less
ROB = steal from
ROCK y -s, -er, -ed, -ing, -filled {by and forth}
ROLL y -s, -er, -ing, -ed [rotation] {off, out, over, up}
ROOF -s, -er, -ing, -ed
ROOM -s, -er, -ing, -ed -like
ROOT -s Ancestry, -er, -ing -ed, -edness Stability,-less, -lessness = Cheer
ROPE -s, -ed, -ing
ROUGH -s, -er, -est, -ly, Roughness
ROUND -s, -er, -est, -ly,-ness -ed Rotundity -ing, -ed -table [council]
{about Circuity],off, out, up}
RUB -s, y -bed, bing Friction
RUIN -s, -ed, -er, -ing
RULE -s, -r, -ed -ing,
RUN n., v. (RUN, RAN, RUN) ny -s, -ner, ran, -ning {by, down [disparagement] on, off, over, up}
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  - S -  

SABOTAGE -s, -ed, -ing
SACRIFICE -s, -d, -ing, -ial, -ially
SAD -ly, -ness Dejection
SAFE -ly -s, -ness Safety -keeping Preservation
SAIL -s, -or [mariner], -ed, -ing, ship {from, off, out, over, to, under}
SALT y -s, -ed, -ing
SAME Uniformity -ness Identity, [tedium], time Synchronism
SAND -s, -ed, -ing
SATISFY = Content, fulfill
SAVE -s, -ior, -d, -ing
SAY n., v. (SAY, SAID, SAID) -s, -er, said, -ing Maxim
SCALE y -s, Size -d, -ing Degree
SCHOOL -s, -ed, -ing, day, time
SCRATCH -es, y [itchy][blemish] -ed, -ing
SCREEN -s, -ed, -ing [shade]
SCREW Distortion -er, -ed, -ing = twist
SEA -s, -men
SEARCH = hunt for
SEASON -s, -al, -ally, -ed, -ing = spice
SEAT -s, -ed, -ing, Abode
SECOND -s, -ed, -ing, -ly -thought [sequel]
SECRET -s, -ly, -ness [secrecy] keep s- Concealment
SECURITY -ies, Safety, Stability
SEE v. (SEE, SAW, SEEN) -s, -r holy s. prophet, saw, seen, -ing; able to s. Vision;
Visibility not able to s. Invisibility
SEED -s, -ed, -er, -ing Posterity = sow, sperm
SEEK v. (SEEK, SOUGHT, SOUGHT) -s, -er, sought = hunt, search
SEEM -s, -ed, -ing Appearance
SEIZE -s, -ed, -ing usurp Command
SELDOM = rarely
SELF -ves, -centered Selfishness, Parsimony, -lessness Unselfishness
SELL -s, -er, sold, -ing "Sale"
SENATE [shifted to American government]
SEND v. (SEND, SENT, SENT) -s, [dispatch] -s, -er, sent, -ing
SENSE -s, -ed, -or, -ing -less Insensibility, -ual [sensuality]
SENTENCE -s, Condemnation, -ed, -ing
SEPARATE -s, -d, -or, -ing, Extrinsic "separation" Disjuction
SERIES = groupings, chain
SERIOUS -ness -ly, - condition
SERVE -s, -r, -ing, Servant -ed {on, out, up}
SERVICE -s, -ed, -ing, man, military-, person, station, woman
SET n., v. (SET, SET, SET) -s, Coherence -ter, ting, {about, against, in, off, on, out
SETTLE -s, -er, -ing "settlement" = colony
SEVEN -th # seven + teen #
SEVERAL = a number of
SEVERE = very grave
SEX y -es, -ed, -ual, -ually -iness
SHADE y Obscurity -s, -ed, -ing, -less, shadiness
SHAKE y, -s, -r,-ing, shook, shaken Agitation
SHALLOW -er, -est, Shallowness
SHAME -s, -d, -ing, -ful, -less, -ful, -less
SHAPE -s, -r, -ing, -d, Sharpness, -less, lessness [formlessness] {up}
SHARE -s, r, -d, -ing
SHARP y -er, -est, ness Pungency = razor
SHE her, her -self
SHELF -s, -ed, -ing -life
SHELL -s, -er, -ing, -ed -fish
SHELTER -s, -ed, -er, -ing = lodging
SHINE y -s, -er, -ing
SHIP -s, -per, -ped, -ping {by, in, off, out, over, through, to}
SHIRT -s, -ed under- s. less
SHOCK -s, -er, -ed, -ing [collision]
SHOE -s, -ded, -ding, -maker
SHOOT -er, shot, -ing = inject
SHORT y -er, -est, -ly, Shortness, -coming Imperfection -hand
SHOULD aux. - see SHALL
SHOUT -ing, out, over
SHOW y Ostentation, -er,-ing, shown,{off,through Transparency, up
SHRINK v. (SHRINK, SHRANK, SHRUNK) - decrease in size
SHUT v. (SHUT, SHUT, SHUT) -s, -ter, -ing {away Seclusion, down [cessation]
SICK -ly, -ness [illness]
SIDE -es, -ing, -show, -ward
SIGHT -s, -ed, -ing, -less Blind, -seer
SIGN -s, Indication, -ed, -ing {in, off, on, over [deed], up, under}
SIGNAL -s, -led, -ing
SILENCE -s, -ed, -ing, Silent -ly, ness Taciturnity
SILK -s, = type of fiber
SILVER y coin, -ware s. tongue
SIMILAR same as Similarity
SIMPLE -ly, Simpleness
SING v. (SING, SANG, SUNG) -s, Rejoice sang, sung, -ing
SINGLE -s, -ly, -ness Celibacy, Unity
SISTER -s, -ly,
SIT v. (SIT, SAT, SAT) -s, -ter, sat, -ting, -out, up, with = accompany
SIX -th number # Six + teen #
SIZE -s, -d, -ing
SKELETON = bare bone structure
SKILL -s, -ed, -ful, -fulness, -less, lessness Unskillfulness
SKIN ny -s, -er, -ed, -ing =cheating, -less, and bones, tight
SKIRT -s, -ed, -ing outskirts
SKY -ies, blue, -high, -light, -ward
SLAVE -s, -er, -ed, -ing; -holder, master, quarters, ship Servility
SLEEP n., v. (SLEEP, SLEPT, SLEPT) y -s, -er, -ing, slept, -less
SLIDE n., v. (SLIDE, SLID, SLID) -s, slid, -ing
SLIP -s, -per, -ped, -ping
SLOW -s, -ed, -ing, -er, -est, Slowness {down, up}
SMALL -er, -est, -ness Littleness Inferiority
SMASH -es, -ed, -er, -ing
SMELL y -s, -ed, -ing [pungency] bad = Odor, Malodorousness -less,
SMILE y -s, -ed, -ing, -iness
SMOKE y -s, -r, -d, -ing, -less, -filled, -iness [opaqueness]
Tobacco smoking material, "weed"
SMOOTH -s, -er, -est, -ly, Smoothness, Elegance {down, off, out, over}
SNAKE y -s, -iness, -like, -ed, -ing [deceiver] [coil] = Meander
SNEEZE -es, -d, -ing [sibilation]
SNOW y -s, -ed, -ing, -iness
SOAP y -s, -ed, -ing, -iness
SOBER -s, -ing -ness -ly "sobriety"
SOCIAL -s, -ly, -able, "Sociality" [sociability] lack of
SOFT -er, -est, -ly, Softness soft drink
SOIL -s, -ed, -ing = make dirty
SOLDIER = army serviceperson
SOLID -s, -ly, -ness Density
SOLVE -s, -d, -r, -ing "Solution"
SOME body, how, one, place, thing, time, what, where
SON -s
SONG -s, -bird, -form, -ster [poetry] (see verb SING)
SOON shortly
SORROW y -s, Regret, -ing Lamentation -ed, -ful lack of sorrow unregretfulness, condolence
SORT -s, -ed, -er, -ing { of, out, over, through, with}
SOUL -s, [psychology]
SOUND -s, -ed, -ing, -ly, -ness, mind [sanity]
SOUR -ed, -ing, Sourness = acid
SOUTH Direction, -east, -west, -bound, -ward, wind
SPACE y, -s, -r, -d, -ing, man travel Astronautics between Interval
SPEAK v. (SPEAK, SPOKE, SPOKEN) -s, -er, spoke, -en, act of [speech], not perfect
SPECIAL -s, -ly character cf. earmark;-ness; special skill "Specialty,"
SPEECH n. -(see verb SPEAK)
SPEED y -s, Velocity -er, -ed, -ing {on, up}
SPELL Sorcery -er, -ed, -ing
SPEND v. (SPEND, SPENT, SPENT) -s, -er, spent
SPIRIT -s, -ual,-ually,-filled [immateriality], good Angel
bad Demon [specter]
SPIT n., v. (SPIT, SPIT, SPIT or SPIT, SPAT, SPAT) -s, [secretion] -ing, spat [hiss]
SPORT Sports y -ed, -ing, -s, -sman [banter]
SPOT -s, -ty Location, [variegation] -ed, -ing, -ter -less; -light, -market
SPREAD -s, -ing, -er {by, for, from, on, out, over
SPRING n., v. (SPRING, SPRANG, SPRUNG) y -s, Leap -iness Elasticity {back Recoil, in, off,out, over,
SPY -ies, -ied, -ing
SQUARE -s, -ly, ness, -d, -ing
STAGE [period] [tier] Arena -s, -ed, -ing
STAMP -s, -ed, -ing, {in, on, out, over, through} [nature]
STAND n., v. (STAND, STOOD, STOOD) -s. stood, -ing, -point, {against, for Resistance, in = substitute,
STAR -s, -ry -ing, -ed, board -filled
START -s, Beginning [advantage] -er, -ed, -ing {in, off, up}
STARVE -s, -ed, -ing
STATION -s, -ed, -ing, -break,- master
STAY -s, -er, -ed, -ing power [perseverance] Remainder = remain
STEAL -s, -er thief Stealing, stole, stolen,
STEAM y -s, -er,-ed, -ing Vapor
STEM -s, -med, -ming cell [shaft]
STEP -s, -ped, -ing out of Unconformity
STICK y -s, -er, -ing, stick to Tenacity, stick together Coherence stuck up
STIFF -s, -er, -est, -ly, -ness [rigidity] -neck [obstinacy]
STILL Silence -ness [quiescence]
STOMACH -s, -ed, -ing
STONE y -s, -d, -ing, -iness
STOP -s, -per, -ped,-ping [cessation], -use Disuse, light, watch
STORE -s, -d, -r, -ing {in, up}
STORM y -s, -ed, -ing Attack; {about, off, out}
STORY -ies, Falsehood -ied
STRAIGHT -er, -est, Straightness
STRANGE -r, -est [foreigner]; [abnormality]
STREAM -s, -ed, -er, -ing {down-, on-, up-}
STREET -s -light
STRETCH -es, -er,-ed,-ing, -able, ableness Elasticity
STRIKE n., v. (STRIKE, STRUCK, STRICKEN) -s, -r, struck, -ing {at [attack], back, out, with}
STRING y -s, -er, -ed, -ing, - Instrument
STRIP -s, -per, -ing, -ped Divestment {off} = bare [vacancy]
STRONG -er, -est, -ly; "Strength" Vigor -hold [refuge]
STRUCTURE Form -s, -er, -ing, -al, ally, -ed, -ing
STRUGGLE = fight
STUDY -ies, -ied, -ing
STUPID = very dull
STYLE Fashion -s, -d, -ing Lifestyle,
SUBJECT Thought -s, -ed, -ing "Subjection"
SUBSTANCE -s, -tial, -ly, lack of - Insubstantiality
SUBSTITUTE -s, -d, -ing "Substitution"
SUCCEED -s, -ed, -ing, "Success" -ful, fully; lack of
SUDDEN -ly, -ness
SUFFER -s, -ed, -er, -ing
SUGAR -s, -ed, -ing
SUGGEST -s, -ed, -ing, Latency, Advice "suggestion"
SUIT -s, -able, Agreement -ably, -ing, -ed, -er
SUMMER -y -s, -time, wear
SUN -ny -s, -ned, -ning light, -shine, -spot
SUPERVISE = oversee
SUPPLY -s, -ied, -ier, -ing Provision
SUPPORT -s, -er, -ing,-ed Aid
SUPPOSE -s, -ed, -ing "Supposition" Supposedly [imply]
SUPPRESS = end, put down
SURE -ly, -ness Certainty, lack of -[uncertainty]
SURFACE -s, -ed, -ing Shallowness, Texture
SURPRISE -s, Expectation lack of inexpectation], -d, -ing not s. [unastonishment]
SURRENDER = give up
SURROUND -s, -ed, -ing = vicinity
SURVIVE = continue living
SUSPECT -s, -ed. -ing
SUSPEND hang in
SUSTAIN -s, -ed, -ing, -er, -able, ably [110 endure]
SWALLOW -s, -ed, -ing Drinking
SWEAR v. (SWEAR, SWORE, SWORN) -s, -ing Imprecation, swore, sworn = curse, cuss
SWEEP v. (SWEEP, SWEPT, SWEPT) -s, -swept, -er, -ing {out, over, up}
SWEET -s, -er, -est, -ly, Sweetness
SWIM n., v. (SWIM, SWAM, SWUM) -s, -ing, swam, swum
SYMPATHY Pity -ies,
SYMBOL -s Figurative
SYSTEM -s, Order, Plan
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  - T -  

TABLE -s, -ed, -ing -land
TAIL Rear -s, -or, -ing, -ed =follow {on, off, over, up, up with}
TAKE n., v. (TAKE, TOOK, TAKEN) -s, -r,-ing, took, taken, {in [inclusion][reception],
TALK -s, -er,-ed,-ing, much Talkiveness {at, for, out Dissuasion,to, to
TALL -er, -est, -ness [cf high]; [tall talk grandiloquence]
TARGET -s, -ed,-ing
TASTE -y -s, -r,-d,-ing, -ful, -less
TAX -es, -er, -ed, -ing, -able
TEA -s drink
TEACH v. (TEACH, TAUGHT, TAUGHT) -s, -er, Teaching, taught, -able; bad -
TEAM -s, -ed, -ing = crew
TEAR n., v. (TEAR, TORE, TORN) y -s, -ing, tore, torn [sever], -ful
TEEN -s, # 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19
TELEPHONE -s, -ed, -ing "phone"
TELEVISION -s Communication
TELL v. (TELL, TOLD, TOLD) -s, -er, told, -ing {off [reprove] with}
TEN -th #
TERM -s, -ed, -ing
TERRIBLE cf. terror
TERRITORY = land area
TEST -y -s, -er, -ing [experiment] = Temptation
THANK -ed, -ing, -s, Gratitude, lack of Ingratitude
THAT those
THEATER -s, Drama
THEIR cf. they
THEIRS cf. they
THEM cf. they
THEN Sequence
THERE -after, -by, -fore, -with
THESE cf. this
THEY their, theirs, them
THICK -er, -est, -ly, -ness
THIN -er, -est, -ly, -ness
THINK v. (THINK, THOUGHT, THOUGHT) -s, thought, -ing [philosophy] {out, over, up} -tank
THIRD -s third part
THIRTEEN = three + teen #
THIS these
THOUGHT n., THOUGHTFUL adj., THOUGHTFULLY adv., THOUGHTFULNESS n. - an idea; the process of thinking (see verb THINK);
THREAD -s, -ed, -ing [filament] -less
THREAT -EN -s, -ed, -ing
THREE # -fold; threefoldness
THROAT -s body part
THROW v. (THROW, THREW, THROWN) -s, -threw, thrown,-ing,-er {at, away = trash, back [reversion], on, up}
THUNDER -s, -ed, -ing
TICKET -s, -er, -ed, -ing
TIE -s, -er, -ed, -ying, {in = connected, on, over, up = congested, with}
TIGHT -er, -est,-ly,-ness Parsimony
TIME -s, -ly -r, -d, -ing, -less, -table Science of - Chronometry
TIN = can, metal container
TIRED -ly, -ness, -ing
TITLE -s, Nomenclature -ed, -ing
TO Today, tonight, toward
TODAY to + day
TOE -d, -ing
TOGETHER -ness [simultaneousness]
TONGUE -s, -d, -ing, language
TONIGHT to + night
TOOL -s, -ing, -ed
TOOTH n. (plural: TEETH), v. -
TOP -s, -ped, -per, -ing, - man, side,
TORTURE -s, -d, -r, -ing
TOTAL -s, -led, -ing "totality"
TOUCH y -s, -ed, -ing, touchiness touch two things Contact
TOUGH -s, -er, -est, -ly, -ness
TOWARD to + ward
TOWER -s, -ed, -ing, cell -, radio -, tv -, watch-, water -[structure]
TOWN -er, -ship
TRADE -s, Barter -r, -d, -ing, -mark
TRADITION -s, -al, -ally
TRAFFIC -ed, -ing TRAIN -er, -ed [tame], -ing Continuity
TRAVEL -s, -ler cf tourist, -ed, -ing, office, plans
TREASON denial of homeland, becoming a turncoat
TREASURE -s, -ed, -ing
TREAT -s, -ed, -ing, -able "treatment"
TREATMENT cf. treat
TREE -s, -d, -ing, -less See American
TRIBE -s, -al
TRICK y -s, -er [deceiver]-ed, -ing [Deception]
TRIP -ped, ping {on, over, up} = stumble
TROOP military; group = band, company
TROUBLE -s, Difficulty Exertion -ed, -ing,-maker [evildoer]
TRUCK -s, -ed, -er, -ing -stop
TRUE -r, -est, saying Maxim "Truth" -ful, -less
TRUST y -s, -ing, -ed, -ful
TRY [endeavor], -ied, -ing, -ial
TUBE -s, -ing subway,
TURN -s, Rotation -ed,-ing [convolution]; downturn Recession
TWELVE -th #
TWICE two times
TWIST -s, Distortion convolution -ed, -ing
TWO # -ness
TYPE -s, -d, -ing, -set, -writer
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  - U -  

UNCLE n. - the brother of one's father or mother
Mary's uncle has a large farm.
UNDER adv., prep. - below or beneath
The dog hid under the table. Please, place a plate under the bowl.
Mrs. Smith did not understand Spanish. John understood everything.
UNIT n., UNITE v., UNITED adj., UNITY n. - a single thing; to become one
The United States represent a single country. An astronomical unit is equal to the distance from the earth from the sun.
UNIVERSE n., UNIVERSAL adj. - the entire celestial cosmos; including everything
The Earth is like a speck of dust in the universe.
UNIVERSITY n. - a school of higher learning
John studied at the University of Texas.
UNLESS conj. - except on the condition that
Mary will not go unless she can find her purse.
UNTIL prep. - indicates continuance to a specified time
We will wait here until she finds her purse.
UP adj., prep. - a higher position
We went up to the top of the mountain. Speak up, I cannot hear you.
URGE n., v., URGENT adj. - to demand; an impulse
We urged him to see the doctor. John felt the urge to eat an orange. We received an urgent message from the office.
US pron. - objective case of WE
John gave us two books.
USE v. - to put into action
USE v., USEFUL n. - to put into action
It is useful to be able to speak English. We used a knife to cut the bread.
USUAL adj. - ordinary or common
He came at the usual time.
UTILITY adj., n. - something that can be used
Electricity is a public utility that makes modern life possible.
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  - V -  

VALLEY n. - a low point usually between mountains
There were many farms in the valley.
VALUE n., v. - monetary worth; usefulness or importance
The value of the book was $20 dollars. Mary values John's friendship.
VEGETABLE n., VEGETATION n. - something of plant origin;
Vegetables are necessary for a healthy diet. Thick vegetation had grown by the fence.
VEHICLE n., VEHICULAR adj. - something used for carrying or transporting
The vehicle was used in the farm.
VERSE n., v. - a poem; to be familiar with
She read a verse from the book. She was well versed in literature.
VERSION n. - a variation
John told us his version of what happened.
VERY adv. - indicates a high degree
The soup was very hot. It was really very, very hot.
VETO n., v. - to disapprove
John vetoed the idea. The president can veto the legislation.
VICE n., VICIOUS adj., VICIOUSLY adv. - moral imperfection
Smoking is an unhealthy vice. The dog attacked the cat viciously.
VICTIM n., VICTIMIZE v. - a person who is injured or sacrificed
Mrs. Smith was the victim of some thieves. She was victimized by the thieves.
VICTORY n., VICTORIOUS adj. - successful; winner
The victory was the result of good strategy. The army was victorious.
VIEW n., v. - to see; a mode of looking
The view from the window was very pretty. I don't agree with John's point of view.
VILLAGE n. - a small city
The village had only 103 inhabitants.
VIOLATE v., VIOLENT adj., VIOLATION n., VIOLENCE n. - to break a rule; to harm
He had 3 parking violations. You should not violate the laws.
VIRTUE n., VIRTUAL adj., VIRTUOUS adj. - a beneficial quality; having the essential qualities
Saints have many virtues. Virtual reality is a computer simulation.
VISIT n., v. - to meet; come together temporarily
Mary went to visit her uncle in Detroit. She visited him in May.
VOICE n., v. - to say; something said
Caruso had a great voice. John voiced his opinion at the meeting.
VOTE n., v. - to express an opinion
Mary voted for Obama. Each vote was important.
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  - W -  

WAGE n. - a payment usually of money for labor or services, v. - to engage in or carry on
The farm job pays very low wages. Napoleon waged war against England.
WAIT n., v. - to stay in place expecting something; to serve a meal
We waited for Mary for 20 minutes. John waited tables when he was in college.
WALK n., v. - to move along on foot
Mary walked 30 minutes yesterday. John did not go for a walk.
WALL n., v. - a masonry fence; one of the sides of a room or building connecting floor and ceiling
The wall of the house was made of stone. Jerusalem was a walled city.
WANT n., v. - an insufficiency; desire for something
John wants a new car.
WAR n. - aggression or armed combat
Many people died during World War II. Make love, not war.
WARD n., v. - to guard or prevent; a division in a hospital
They say that lemons ward off colds. The hospital ward was almost empty.
WARM adj., v. - giving out heat
The room was very warm. John warmed his hands by the fire.
WARN v., WARNING n. - to give advice about some danger
A sign warned about the curves in the road. The warning sign was yellow.
WASH n., v. - to clean in a liquid like water
Mary washed the dishes after supper.
WASTE n., v. - unwanted, defective, or superfluous; to use carelessly
We wasted a lot of time waiting for Mary. John put the paper in the waste basket.
WATCH n., v. - to look; a small device for measuring time
Watch the pot on the stove. John has an old pocket watch.
WATER n., v. WATERY adj. - the liquid that descends from the clouds as rain, forms streams, lakes, and seas
Ocean water is salty. The soup was very watery.
WAVE n., v., WAVY adj. - the oscillation in a liquid; to move the hand back and forth
She waved her hand as we said goodbye. The storm created big waves.
WAY adj., n. - a route; a course of action
I don't know which way to go. Mary always manages to get her own way.
WE, OUR, OURS, US pron. - second person plural pronoun
We went to our home. This house is ours. John gave us a cake.
WEAK adj., WEAKEN v., WEAKLY adv., WEAKNESS n. - without strength
Mrs. Smith has weak bones. She spoke weakly.
WEALTH n., WEALTHY adj. - rich; having abundance of valuable resources
John's father was a wealthy man. He got his wealth in the transportation business.
WEAPON n. - something used to injure or destroy
The atomic bomb is a terrible weapon.
WEAR n., v. (WEAR, WORE, WORN) - to bear or have on the person
Mary wore a black hat. I do not like to wear hats.
WEATHER n., v. - the state of the atmosphere with respect to heat or cold, wetness or dryness; to come safely through
We had rainy weather yesterday. The house weathered the storm without any damage.
WEDNESDAY n. - the fourth day of the week
I like to watch television every Wednesday.
WEEK n. - a 7-day cycle beginning on Sunday and ending on Saturday
John took a three-week vacation. The week has seven days.
WEIGH v., WEIGHT n., WHEIGHTY adj. - a unit of mass or heaviness
Mary wants to lose some weight. She weighs 160 pounds.
WELCOME n., v. - an initial greeting; to greet hospitably
We welcomed the new students to our house.
WELL n. - a deep hole in the ground; WELL, BETTER, BEST adv. - in a good or proper manner
Mary cooks very well. The farm got water from a well.
WEST adj., n., WESTERN adj. - the general direction of sunset
My aunt traveled west to California. The western storm brought a lot of rain.
WET adj., v. (WET, WET, WET) - covered with liquid such as water
I got wet during the storm.
WHAT adj., pron. - interrogative pronoun; introduces a phrase
What time is it? I don't know what time it is.
WHEAT n. - a cereal grain
Pasta and bread are made of wheat flour.
WHEEL n., v. - a disk revolving at the center
Most cars have four wheels. The nurse wheeled the patient in a wheel chair.
WHEN adv., pron. - at a designated time
When will I see you again? Probably when I can get vacation from work.
WHERE adv., n. - in what place
Where did you buy the cake? I don't know where to buy clothes.
WHICH adj., pron. - what one or ones out of a group
In which house do you live? Which tie should I wear?
WHILE n., prep. - a period of time
John and I played cards while we waited for Mary.
WHITE adj., n. - a color like snow
Always use white paper for business letters. She ate only the egg whites to avoid cholesterol.
WHO WHOSE, WHOM pron. - relative pronoun
Who is Mary? Whose book is this? To whom did you give the book?
WHOLE adj., WHOLLY adv. - a complete thing
I like whole wheat bread. My company is wholly owned by a German business.
WHY adv., conj. - for what cause, reason, or purpose
Why did you do it? I don't know why you did it.
WIDE, WIDER, WIDEST adj., WIDTH n. - extending over a vast area
The river was very wide. It had a width of one kilometer at its widest point.
WIFE n. (plural: WIVES) - a female partner in a marriage
Is Mary John's wife? There was an African king who had many wives.
WILD adj., WILDLY adj. - without regulation or control
Some wild ducks swam in the lake. John was waving his arms wildly to scare the ducks.
WILL n., aux., v. - auxiliary verb to indicate future; a legal inheritance document.
John's will divides all his property equally between his children. I will divide the cake in equal pieces.
WIN n., v. (WIN, WON, WON) - to gain in or as if in battle or contest
John never won any prizes. I would like to win the lottery.
WIND n. v. (WIND, WOUND, WOUND) - movement of air; to turn completely or repeatedly
Don't forget to wind the clock. The strong wind broke the tree.
WINDOW n. - an opening in a wall for admission of light and air
Please close the window.
WINE n., v. - drink from fermented juice
John ordered red wine with supper. John wined and dined his friends.
WING n., v. - an structure used for flying; to wound or disable a wing
The airplane had wide wings. The hunter winged the duck.
WINTER n., v. - the season between autumn and spring; cold season in the northern hemisphere
I don't like the winter weather in Norway. The ducks wintered in Central America.
WIPE n., v. - to clean or dry by rubbing
John wiped his glasses with a tissue.
WIRE n., v. - metal in the form of a usually very flexible thread; to use wire on for a specific purpose
My guitar has three wire strings and three plastic strings. John wired some money to his friend in South America.
WISE adj., WISELY adv., WISDOM n. - intelligent; knowledgeable
Use your time wisely. Traditions are based on the wisdom of our ancestors.
WISH n., v. - a desire
I wish I had a million dollars. What do you wish?
WITH prep. - together
I would like eggs with bacon. What would you like with your coffee?
I withdrew money from my bank account. It was a withdrawal of $100 dollars.
WITHOUT prep. - with something lacking or absent
I would like eggs without bacon.
WOMAN n. (plural: WOMEN), WOMANLY adv. - an adult female person
There were three women in the store. Each woman wore a hat.
WONDER n., v., WONDERFUL adj. - to question; to cause surprise or admiration
I wonder where Mary went. She went to buy a wonderful hat.
WOOD n., WOODY adj. - the fibrous substance of the trunk and branches of trees
The house was made of wood. We cooked on a wood fire when we went camping.
WOOL n., WOOLY adj. - the soft wavy hair of sheep
John wore a blue wool coat.
WORD n., WORDY adj. - a written or spoken expression that symbolizes and communicates a meaning without being divisible into smaller units capable of independent use
The sentence had many words. It was wordy.
WORK n., v. - physical or mental effort to overcome obstacles and achieve an objective or result
John works for a big company. He uses computers for his work.
WORLD n. - the Earth; a separate and independent unit
The world is getting hotter due to global warming.
WORRY n., v. - mental distress or agitation
John did not have to worry.
WORSHIP n., v. - a form of religious practice with its creed and ritual
People go to church to worship God. Some cultures worship their ancestors.
WORTH n., WORTHY adj. - monetary value
How much is this old book worth? John raised funds for a worthy cause.
WOUND n., v. (don't confuse with verb WIND)
Mr. Smith was wounded during the war. His wound was not too serious.
WRECK n., v. - to ruin or damage
John's cousin wrecked the car. The wreck was towed to the garage.
WRITE v. (WRITE, WROTE, WRITTEN) - to inscribe characters or symbols on a surface
The report was written last month. John wrote the report.
WRONG adj., adv. - not right or proper according to a code or rule
There were three wrong answers on the test. What is wrong with Mrs. Smith?
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  - X -  

X-RAY n., v. - radiation of short wave length; a image taken with X-rays
Doctors use X-rays for diagnosis.

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  - Y -  

YARD n. - an English measure; the ground adjacent to a house
A yard is a U.S. unit of length equal to 0.9144 meters. The children played in the yard.
YEAR n. - the time it takes the Earth to revolve around the Sun
John will be 46 years old next year.
YELLOW adj., n., v., YELLOWISH adj. - a color; to turn yellow
Mustard usually has a yellow color. The book had yellowed with age.
YES adv. - agreement or affirmation
John said "yes" to the proposal.
YESTERDAY adv. - the day before today
Yesterday, all my troubles seemed so far away.
YET adv. - up to now
I have not yet received a confirmation.
YOGURT n. - a product made of fermented milk
I like to have oatmeal with yogurt for breakfast.
YOU, YOUR, YOURS, YOURSELF pron. - second person pronoun
You should not go to the party by yourself. Don't forget your keys.
YOUNG adj., n. - an early stage of life
The young man felt uncomfortable at the party.
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ZERO n., v. - nothing; to adjust the aim
In the end, we had zero profit. He zeroed in on his target.

© Copyright  - Antonio Zamora

Sentence Types
Parts of Speech
• - The Subject
• - The Predicate
• - Verbal Phrases

Regular verbs
Irregular verbs
Verb "to be"
English vocabulary