The term personality refers to the characteristic patterns of thoughts and actions of a person in relation to the social environment. Recurring behaviors triggered by specific situations are called personality traits, and unlike reflexes, which are inborn and performed without conscious thought, personality traits generally develop as an adaptation to environmental stimuli. There is a fuzzy boundary between inborn traits and learned traits. Are persons who are stingy or obstinate born with those qualities? Or, do these traits develop from facing particular hardships? This section covers several topics on this subject.
Whether you are interested in romance, or just trying to get along with your colleagues at work, this step-by-step analysis will help you evaluate relationships in a systematic way.
This personality test uses ten categories of individual and ten categories of social personality attributes to help you look inside yourself, find out how others see you, and get insights about other persons. Unlike personality tests like the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) which look at four aspects of personality (Extrovert/Introvert, Intuitive/Sensing, Feeling/Thinking, Judging/Perceiving) that are mainly internal information-processing functions of the brain, the Personality Test focuses on categorizing external behavioral traits. This makes it possible to create a personality profile for yourself based on your own assessment of your feelings and beliefs, or for another person by completing the test based on the other person's past behavior and social interactions. The program includes an introduction to personality analysis that describes personality compatibility criteria and how personality attributes may affect social interactions.
Casinos use several methods to attract and retain customers in order to take their money. Learn some of the psychological techniques used by casinos to encourage gambling.
An obsession for perfectionism, excessive orderliness and the need to control one's environment may be a sign of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD). Such behavior frequently makes it difficult to accomplish tasks or have normal interpersonal relationships.
Learn to read between the lines. Apply your knowledge of personality traits to verify the information that you are given and to deduce the implications of that information. What can you tell about the person who placed the following personal advertisement?
SEEKING SOULMATE. SBPF, 34, 5'5", long hair, brown eyes, single parent, enjoys jazz, gospel, Italian food, bowling, movies, videos in front of fireplace. Seeking loving, considerate, honest SBPM, 32-40.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is used widely to try to classify personally traits based on Carl Jung's work on psychological typology. Many psychologists do not agree that the MBTI provides a reliable assessment of personality. Nevertheless, the Myers-Briggs personality test is taken by around two million people per year through 10,000 private companies, 2,500 colleges, and 200 government agencies in the United States. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator tries to classify people into one of 16 personality types. The MBTI test uses four traits which have two complementary aspects to arrive at the 16 classifications.
According to Myers-Briggs, a person who turns to others to increase energy is an Extrovert (E), whereas those who turn inward are Introverts (I). Those who acquire information in a creative way are Intuitive (N), whereas those who take in information pragmatically are Sensing (S). People who make decisions seeking harmony are Feeling (F), but those seeking objective truth are classified as Thinking (T). Persons preferring to act and get closure are Judging (J), whereas those who stay open and adapt are Perceiving (P). Using these categories, a person who is extroverted, intuitive, feeling and judging would be classified as an ENFJ personality. The following chart has summarizes the characteristics of the 16 personality types.
|INFP||Idealistic, curious and loyal. Seeks to understand others, but can be less accepting of those who threaten core values.|
|INFJ||Insightful and oriented toward the future. Conscientious, but can be firmly decisive to accomplish vision.|
|INTJ||Hold self and others to high standards. Individualistic and visionary, but with a tendency toward skepticism.|
|INTP||Rational, contemplative problem solver. Great tendency to be critical.|
|ISTP||Tolerant and candid. Spends a lot of time silently observing, and provides solutions quickly.|
|ISTJ||Steadfast and hard-working with a practical outlook. Strong need for order and organization.|
|ISFJ||Careful and considerate. Remembers small details about people and objects, and can be very thorough.|
|ISFP||Avoids conflicts and quietly friendly. Open-minded and sympathetic, but prefers to work without others.|
|ESFP||Likes group interaction. Matches common sense with flexibility. Loves people and life, but can be too materialistic.|
|ESFJ||Outgoing and loyal. Follows through on projects, but seeks affirmation and appreciation.|
|ESTJ||Decisive and efficient. Uses systematic approach to problems, and can be forceful in implementing decisions.|
|ESTP||Bold and tactical, with great energy for solving problems. Has difficulty focusing on concepts and theories.|
|ENTP||Clever and entrepreneurial. Dislikes routine. Has difficulty committing to long-term interests.|
|ENTJ||Assumes leadership roles and solves organizational problems. Can be aggressive when putting ideas forward.|
|ENFJ||Goal-oriented and caring. Highly empathetic and very sensitive to criticism.|
|ENFP||Charismatic, imaginative and warm. Needs a lot of affirmation from others, but can also be very supportive.|