Selling stocks is more complicated than buying them. In addition to trying to make a profit, it is necessary to consider the tax consequences of a sale. The sale of a stock may push the investor's income into a higher tax bracket. In addition, profit on the sale of a securities that have been held for one year or less are considered short-term capital gains that are taxed as ordinary income. The gains from stocks that have been held for more than a year are considered long-term gains that are usually subject to a lower federal tax rate.
When a stock has risen and then starts to decline in value, an investor is faced with the dilemma of risking the loss of some or all of the gains while holding the stock for over a year to get a more favorable tax situation. In general, it is better to pay taxes on stock gains rather than sell at a loss.
One of the hardest decisions that an investor has to make is what to do when the price of a stock starts losing value shortly after its purchase. Is it better to hold the stock when its value continues to drop hoping that the value will eventually recover? Or, is it better to sell the stock at a moderate loss to avoid losing a greater amount by continuing to hold? Many investors will sell a security when its value has dropped by 5 or 10 percent. These decisions have to be made based on the volatility of the stock and the investor's tolerance for risk. Stock brokers allow investors to place stop-loss orders to sell at a predetermined price and protect profits or limit losses.
An investor who sells a stock that has been losing value is prevented from claiming a loss if he shortly thereafter repurchases the stock. This is called a "wash sale" and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) prohibits a taxpayer from claiming a loss on the sale or trade of a security, if within 30 days before or after this sale the investor buys a "substantially identical" stock or security.
The tax laws influence greatly the strategies for selling stocks. Gains from stock sales sold at a profit are fully taxable. Capital losses can be used to offset capital gains, but if the losses exceed the gains, a maximum of $3,000 can be deducted against other sources of income. The rest of the losses have to be carried over to the next tax year.
There are various tools that can be used to analyze stock movements. The tools make it easier to decide when to buy or sell a stock by eliminating the short-term fluctuations that make it difficult to understand whether a stock is increasing or decreasing in value over a longer period of time.
BigCharts.com and Yahoo Finance offer free charting services for stocks. The charts can be customized in different ways. These charts show the stock price of IBM for a 3-month period with a candlestick chart, 9- and 18-day simple moving averages (SMA) and Bollinger Bands.
The Candlestick Chart is a style of bar-chart that describes price movements of a security for a designated span of time. Usually, each bar represents the range of price movement for one day. The bar corresponds to the opening and closing values of the security. A green bar indicates a gain, and a red bar indicates a loss. The green bars have the opening price at the bottom and the closing price at the top. The reverse is true for the red bars. Thin lines that extend above or below the bars indicate the range of values of the stock during that day.
The Simple Moving Average (SMA) is calculated by adding the closing price of the security for a number of time periods and then dividing this total by the number of time periods. The short-term averages quickly respond to changes, while long-term averages react more slowly. In these charts, you can see that the moving average for 9 days, SMA(9), is more jagged than the moving average for 18 days, SMA(18). The SMA smooths out the daily variations to provide a simplified interpretation of the trend.
The Volume shown under each chart indicates the number of trades for the security during each day. These charts show a high volume on October 17, 2013 when the IBM stock price dropped significantly.
Bollinger Bands indicate the volatility of a stock by showing the standard deviation above or below a moving average. In general, when the bands lie close together, a period of low volatility is indicated. When the bands expand, an increase in price volatility is indicated. Some traders buy when the price touches the lower Bollinger Band and sell when the price touches the moving average in the center of the bands.
Charts provide insights that may be used for many trading strategies. When a stock rises and then falls, the top of the curve is called a "resistance" level. When a stock drops in value and then rises, the bottom of the curve is called the "support" level. Some traders will buy when a stock starts rising from a support level and will sell part or all of the stock as it approaches a recent resistance level. Some traders will use stop orders to sell the stock in case its value declines below a certain value to limit the loss of capital.
Long-term investors buy stocks based on fundamentals and disregard stock value swings due to general market conditions that do not affect the intrinsic value of the stock. The stock of companies that produce popular, good-quality products generally appreciates in value in the long term. To maximize profits, it is better to own stocks of companies that increase in value faster, but we often know this only in retrospect.